(2013/07/03 22:31), Robert Haas wrote:
On Wed, Jul 3, 2013 at 4:18 AM, KONDO Mitsumasa
<kondo.mitsum...@lab.ntt.co.jp> wrote:
I tested and changed segsize=0.25GB which is max partitioned table file size and
default setting is 1GB in configure option (./configure --with-segsize=0.25).
Because I thought that small segsize is good for fsync phase and background disk
write in OS in checkpoint. I got significant improvements in DBT-2 result!

This is interesting.  Unfortunately, it has a significant downside:
potentially, there will be a lot more files in the data directory.  As
it is, the number of files that exist there today has caused
performance problems for some of our customers.  I'm not sure off-hand
to what degree those problems have been related to overall inode
consumption vs. the number of files in the same directory.
Did you change number of max FD per process in kernel parameter? In default setting, number of max FD per process is 1024. I think that it might over limit in 500GB class database. Or, this problem might be caused by _mdfd_getseg() at md.c. In write phase, dirty buffers don't have own FD. Therefore they seek to find own FD and check the file in each dirty buffer. I think it is safe file writing, but it might too wasteful. I think that BufferTag should have own FD and it will be more efficient in checkpoint writing.

If the problem is mainly with number of of files in the same
directory, we could consider revising our directory layout.  Instead


We could have:


That would move all the vm and fsm forks to separate directories,
which would cut down the number of files in the main-fork directory
significantly.  That might be worth doing independently of the issue
you're raising here.  For large clusters, you'd even want one more
level to keep the directories from getting too big:


...where ${X} is two hex digits, maybe just the low 16 bits of the
relfilenode number.  But this would be not as good for small clusters
where you'd end up with oodles of little-tiny directories, and I'm not
sure it'd be practical to smoothly fail over from one system to the
It seems good idea! In generally, base directory was not seen by user.
So it should be more efficient arrangement for performance and adopt for
large database.

(2013/07/03 22:39), Andres Freund wrote:> On 2013-07-03 17:18:29 +0900
> Hm. I wonder how much of this could be gained by doing a
> sync_file_range(SYNC_FILE_RANGE_WRITE) (or similar) either while doing
> the original checkpoint-pass through the buffers or when fsyncing the
> files.
Sync_file_rage system call is interesting. But it was supported only by Linux kernel 2.6.22 or later. In postgresql, it will suits Robert's idea which does not depend on kind of OS.

> Presumably the smaller segsize is better because we don't
> completely stall the system by submitting up to 1GB of io at once. So,
> if we were to do it in 32MB chunks and then do a final fsync()
> afterwards we might get most of the benefits.
Yes, I try to test this setting './configure --with-segsize=0.03125' tonight.
I will send you this test result tomorrow.

I think that best way to write buffers in checkpoint is sorted by buffer's FD and block-number with small segsize setting and each property sleep times. It will realize genuine sorted checkpint with sequential disk writing!

Best regards,
Mitsumasa KONDO
NTT Open Source Software Center

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