Yes it would/does make a difference! When you do it with one connection you should see a big performance gain. Delayed, granted, extend locks (locktype=extend) can happen due to many concurrent connections trying to insert into the same table at the same time. Each insert request results in an extend lock (8k extension), which blocks other writers. What normally happens is the these extend locks happen so fast that you hardly ever see them in the pg_locks table, except in the case where many concurrent connections are trying to do a lot of inserts into the same table. The following query will show if this is the case:

select * from pg_locks where granted = false and locktype = 'extend';

Jean Baro <>
Sunday, December 24, 2017 7:09 PM
Multiple connections, but we are going to test it with only one. Would it make any difference?

Thanks <>
Sunday, December 24, 2017 6:52 PM
Are the inserts being done through one connection or multiple connections concurrently?

Sent from my iPhone

Jean Baro <>
Sunday, December 24, 2017 2:51 PM
Hi there,

We are testing a new application to try to find performance issues.

AWS RDS m4.large 500GB storage (SSD)

One table only, called Messages:

Country  (ISO)
Role (Text)
User id  (Text)
GroupId (integer)
Channel (text)
Title (Text)
Payload (JSON, up to 20kb)
Starts_in (UTC)
Expires_in (UTC)
Seen (boolean)
Deleted (boolean)
LastUpdate (UTC)
Created_by (UTC)
Created_in (UTC)


UserID + Country (main index)

We inserted 160MM rows, around 2KB each. No partitioning.

Insert started at around 3.000 inserts per second, but (as expected) started to slow down as the number of rows increased. In the end we got around 500 inserts per second.

Queries by Userd_ID + Country took less than 2 seconds, but while the batch insert was running the queries took over 20 seconds!!!

We had 20 Lambda getting messages from SQS and bulk inserting them into Postgresql.

The insert performance is important, but we would slow it down if needed in order to ensure a more flat query performance. (Below 2 seconds). Each query (userId + country) returns around 100 diferent messages, which are filtered and order by the synchronous Lambda function. So we don't do any special filtering, sorting, ordering or full text search in Postgres. In some ways we use it more like a glorified file system. :)

We are going to limit the number of lambda workers to 1 or 2, and then run some queries concurrently to see if the query performance is not affect too much. We aim to get at least 50 queries per second (returning 100 messages each) under 2 seconds, even when there is millions of messages on SQS being inserted into PG.

We haven't done any performance tuning in the DB.

With all that said, the question is:

What can be done to ensure good query performance (UserID+ country) even when the bulk insert is running (low priority).

We are limited to use AWS RDS at the moment.


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