Richard O'Keefe wrote:
If you came across a sentence written using English syntax and
closed-class words but Japanese open class words, would it
still be English?

According to the theory that I have presented in
such a sentence could be seen as containing a language of its
own. That language would contain symbols (words) that might
be found in Japanese and English dictionaries.

By that criterion, printf is definitely part of the C language.

In my earlier post I said that it has been said that the printf
function does not belong to the C language. In the paper
Ritchie et al. discuss the C language.
They say on page 2015 (page 25 in the PDF file) that "The C language
provides no facility for I/O.", and they continue discussing how
things would be if the printf function would be built into the language.
I understand this so that Ritchie et al. think that printf does
not belong to the C language. Obviously these computer scientists
think that only those textual symbols (keywords) that are built into
the compiler belong to the programming language.

As it seems to be so difficult to define what does or does
not belong to a (programming) language, I thought that it might
be useful to think that each computer program or any other document
contains a language of its own.

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