Regarding jatropha's disadvantage that the seedcake is toxic to 
livestock, Dr Karve of ARTI in India said this:

"One kg meal of Jatropha seed (or of any other oilseed) will give you one kg
biogas, of which 250 g would be methane."

Typical jatropha yield in India = 1 tonne/ha of seed (yielding 
300-400 kg of oil)
Biogas yield = 1 kg meal - > 1 kg biogas containing 250 g methane

Useful, but maybe not as useful as livestock feed.

On the other hand, livestock should be eating off the land, whether 
grazing or foraging, not living on concentrates like oilseed cake. It 
should only be used as a supplement.

Peanut meal or sunflower seed meal and so on are fine, but not all 
edible oils might yield an equally edible oilseed cake for livestock 
feed. Here's what Biodynamic farmer Trauger Groh, founder of the CSA 
movement in the US, says about soy, for instance:

"Soy Meal for Cows -- I have followed for many years the sickening 
effect of soy on ruminants. Cows that formerly could easily reach the 
age of 15 years and have 12 calves have on average now less than 
three calves and reach hardly the age of six. One main reason is the 
high percentage of soy in the rations. It works into the buildup of 
ammonia in the rumen. This affects negatively the liver and then 
showsup in mastitis and sterility. Off they go to the butcher. Only 
there can a vet identify the defective livers. The soybean, bringing 
about high milk yields in the first two lactations, is the curse of 
our cattle herds. And the milk achieved through it is not health 
promoting either. . . "

This fits in with other research findings on soy, some of them to be 
found here:
Weston A. Price Foundation

I've always wondered about the rationale of WVO, condemned for human 
consumption because of the FFAs and so on, classified by the US EPA 
as a hazardous waste, being recycled as feed to raise livestock for 
human consumption.

But soy and WVO look like ambrosia compared with some of the other 
stuff you get in livestock feed. This is from a recent study of 
livestock feed in the US:

"Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result 
in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, 
arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products [also 
mycotoxins]. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that 
could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent 
comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with 
animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level 
concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, 
and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic 
agents ìfrom farm to fork."
-- "What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed
Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health", Amy R. 
Sapkota, Lisa Y. Lefferts, et al, Environmental Health Perspectives, 
115 No 5, May 2007

Nightmare. Other countries aren't that different, it's a global 
industry. Here's a list of ingredients from the report:

Table 1. Animal feed ingredients that are legally used in U.S. animal feeds.
Origin, raw material Examples
Forage Alfalfa meal and hay, Bermuda coastal grass hay, corn plant, 
and soybean hay
Grains Barley, corn (organic and genetically modified), oats, rice, 
sorghum, and wheat
Plant protein products Canola meal, cottonseed cakes and meals, 
peanut meal, safflower meal, and soybean (organic and genetically 
modified) feed and meal
Processed grain by-products Distillers products, brewers dried 
grains, corn gluten, sorghum germ cake and meal, peanut skins, and 
wheat bran
Fruit and fruit by-products Dried citrus pulp, apple pomace, and pectin pulp
Molasses Beet, citrus, starch, and cane molasses
Miscellaneous Almond hulls and ground shells, buckwheat hulls, 
legumes and their
by-products, and other crop by-products
Rendered animal protein from the slaughter of food production animals 
and other animals Meat meal, meat meal tankage, meat and bone meal, 
poultry meal, animal
by-product meal, dried animal blood, blood meal, feather meal, egg-shell
meal, hydrolyzed whole poultry, hydrolyzed hair, bone marrow, and animal
digest from dead, dying, diseased, or disabled animals including deer and elk
Animal waste Dried ruminant waste, dried swine waste, dried poultry 
litter, and undried
processed animal waste products
Marine by-products Fish meal, fish residue meal, crab meal, shrimp 
meal, fish oil, fish liver and glandular meal, and fish by-products
Dairy products Dried cow milk, casein, whey products, and dried cheese
Fats and oils Animal fat, vegetable fat or oil, and hydrolyzed fats
Restaurant food waste Edible food waste from restaurants, bakeries, 
and cafeterias
Contaminated/adulterated food Food adulterated with rodent, roach, or 
bird excreta that has been heat treated to destroy pathogenic 
Antibiotics Tetracyclines, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and streptogramins
By-products of drug manufacture Spent mycelium and fermentation products
Arsenicals Roxarsone and arsanilic acid
Other metal compounds Copper compounds and metal amino acid complexes
Nonprotein nitrogen Urea, ammonium chloride, and ammonium sulfate
Minerals Bone charcoal, calcium carbonate, chalk rock, iron salts, 
magnesium salts, and oyster shell flour
Vitamins Vitamins A, D, B12, E, niacin, and betaine
Direct-fed organisms Aspergillis niger, Bacillus subtilis, 
Bifidobacterium animalis, Enterococcus faecium, and yeast
Flavors Aloe vera gel concentrate, ginger, capsicum, and fennel
Enzymes Phytase, cellulase, lactase, lipase, pepsin, and catalase
Additives generally regarded as safe (GRAS) Acetic acid, sulfuric 
acid, aluminum salts, dextrans, glycerin, beeswax, sorbitol, and 
Preservatives Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and sodium bisulfite
Nutraceuticals Herbal and botanical products
Plastics Polyethylene roughage replacement

Data adapted from AAFCO (2004).

When we talk of using the oilseed cake after the oils's been pressed 
out as livestock feed, what that's most often going to mean is an 
ingredient in the sort of horror brew above, destined for CAFOs, 
Confined Animal Feeding Operations - factory farms.



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