Hi John,
No there is nothing I'm aware of which discriminates anywhere between 
cultivated pears in general (Pyrus communis) & specific cultivars 
('Conference'). Cultivar just is shorthand for "cultivated variety" so of 
course there is no hierarchy variety=>cultivar.
That's just the way gardeners & horticulturalists have evolved their naming 
over hundreds of years. (and for Japanese cherries it's worse as they have such 
a complicated heritage it is not possible to accurately assign them to a 
species, so they are formally known just with the genus & cultivar (Prunus 
'Kanzan' for example).
I suspect the kind of thing you want is related to some other, non-biological, 
property of the said orchard trees: such as colour, use (cooking apple, cider 
apple, perry pear, ornament). Or you are looking for properties which are 
biological, but not directly related to the biological classification (e.g., 
flowering time). If not then I can't help, and I'd be pretty sceptical that you 
can achieve a tagging mechanism that is genuinely useful given that the 
biological/horticultural one has 250+ years of refinement.
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|   |  |   |   |   |   |   |
| Conference pear - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaA Conference pear is a 
variety of pear. |
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| View on en.wikipedia.org | Preview by Yahoo |
|  |
|   |

|   |
|   |  |   |   |   |   |   |
| Prunus 'Kanzan' - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaPrunus 'Kanzan' (syn. 
'Kwanzan' or 'Sekiyama') is a flowering cherry cultivar. It is a deciduous tree 
that grows to between 8 and 12 metres high with an 8 metre spr... |
|  |
| View on en.wikipedia.org | Preview by Yahoo |
|  |
|   |

     From: John Willis <jo...@mac.com>
 To: Jerry Clough - OSM <sk53_...@yahoo.co.uk>; "Tag discussion, strategy and 
related tools" <tagging@openstreetmap.org> 
 Sent: Tuesday, 15 September 2015, 9:54
 Subject: Re: [Tagging] Orchards and their crops


> On Sep 15, 2015, at 5:27 PM, Jerry Clough - OSM <sk53_...@yahoo.co.uk> wrote:
> our next problem is to identify the cultivars: not easy with cherries in 
> Japan.

So there is nothing between

"This is a pear"


"This is the very specific cultivar of this variety of this pear.


It looks like ill be requesting some more tree types then. 


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