Unfortunately repair doesn't compare each partition individually. Instead, it groups multiple partitions together and calculate a hash of them, stores the hash in a leaf of a merkle tree, and then compares the merkle trees between replicas during a repair session. If any one of the partitions covered by a leaf is inconsistent between replicas, the hash values in these leaves will be different, and all partitions covered by the same leaf will need to be streamed in full.

Knowing that, and also know that your approach can create a lots of inconsistencies in the repaired SSTables because some unrepaired SSTables are being marked as repaired on one node but not on another, you would then understand why over-streaming can happen. The over-streaming is only problematic for the repaired SSTables, because they are much bigger than the unrepaired.

On 07/02/2024 17:00, Sebastian Marsching wrote:
Caution, using the method you described, the amount of data streamed at the end 
with the full repair is not the amount of data written between stopping the 
first node and the last node, but depends on the table size, the number of 
partitions written, their distribution in the ring and the 
'repair_session_space' value. If the table is large, the writes touch a large 
number of partitions scattered across the token ring, and the value of 
'repair_session_space' is small, you may end up with a very expensive 
Thanks for the warning. In our case it worked well (obviously we tested it on a 
test cluster before applying it on the production clusters), but it is good to 
know that this might not always be the case.

Maybe I misunderstand how full and incremental repairs work in C* 4.x. I would 
appreciate if you could clarify this for me.

So far, I assumed that a full repair on a cluster that is also using 
incremental repair pretty much works like on a cluster that is not using 
incremental repair at all, the only difference being that the set of repaired 
und unrepaired data is repaired separately, so the Merkle trees that are 
calculated for repaired and unrepaired data are completely separate.

I also assumed that incremental repair only looks at unrepaired data, which is 
why it is so fast.

Is either of these two assumptions wrong?

If not, I do not quite understand how a lot of overstreaming might happen, as 
long as (I forgot to mention this step in my original e-mail) I run an 
incremental repair directly after restarting the nodes and marking all data as 

I understand that significant overstreaming might happen during this first 
repair (in the worst case streaming all the unrepaired data that a node 
stores), but due to the short amount of time between starting to mark data as 
repaired and running the incremental repair, the whole set of unrepaired data 
should be rather small, so this overstreaming should not cause any issues.

 From this point on, the unrepaired data on the different nodes should be in 
sync and discrepancies in the repaired data during the full repair should not 
be bigger than they had been if I had run a full repair without marking an data 
as repaired.

I would really appreciate if you could point out the hole in this reasoning. 
Maybe I have a fundamentally wrong understanding of the repair process, and if 
I do I would like to correct this.

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