Being shorter than regular transition metal bonds and unbalanced, these
microcavities that pit the surface of metal can be up to 10 times stronger
than the bonds that connect a perfect crystalline lattice metal structure.
In simple terms, the walls of a micro cavity on the surface of a metal is
When hydrogen atoms enter such a cavity, that atom becomes very energetic
because such tight confinement produces extreme energy due to Heisenberg's
Ux Up >= ħ/2
(ħ is the reduced Planck constant *h* / (2*π*)).
Certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary
variables: position x and momentum p, can be known only to a fixed degree.
Because the hydrogen atom enters into a very confining space, its energy is
driven to extremes by this quantum effect.
The metal bonds of the cavity absorb this energy of confinement and the
atom's temperature eventually equilibrates with that of the lattice. As
more hydrogen atoms enter the micro cavity, this new resident atom becomes
even more energetic since it has even less space to occupy inside the
cavity. This atom's energy will eventually be cooled by the lattice until
its temperature eventually equilibrates with that of the lattice.
As more hydrogen atoms enter the cavity, the quantum effects pressure
caused by the entrance of that new atom in its turn becomes so great that
the pressure reaches a level sufficient to produce a crystal of ultra dense
The engineering takeaways from this quantum compression process:
There is an ideal size that a microcavity should be. That size should be
just large enough to contain the finished UDH crystal and no bigger.
The LENR fuel preparation process that the successful LENR reactor builders
undertake requires a long time for the production of ultra dense hydrogen
to occur. If sufficient time for the long term absorption of hydrogen and
associated quantum compression is not allowed, then the UDH will not reach
the proper pressure for UDH formation to occur.
The hydrogen must be isotropically pure for UDH to form.
If lithium is used in conjunction with hydrogen, Ultra dense lithium
hydride will form requiring just 1/4 of the quantum pressure. But both the
lithium and hydrogen must be isotropically pure. Any isotope poisoning will
kill the quantum compression process. That poisoned cavity will not from UDH
from then on.
LENR poisons like nitrogen will kill UDH formation, but after UDH
formation, poisoning is no longer a consideration.
The UDH will slowly exit the microcavities in which they were formed and
activate the LENR reaction. The micrographs of the me356 fuel shows that UDH
process and UDH falls from the metal micro cavity containment onto the
carbon substrate to catalyze transmutation of carbon into metal.