Being shorter than regular transition metal bonds and unbalanced, these microcavities that pit the surface of metal can be up to 10 times stronger than the bonds that connect a perfect crystalline lattice metal structure. In simple terms, the walls of a micro cavity on the surface of a metal is very strong.
When hydrogen atoms enter such a cavity, that atom becomes very energetic because such tight confinement produces extreme energy due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Ux Up >= ħ/2 (ħ is the reduced Planck constant *h* / (2*π*)). Certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables: position x and momentum p, can be known only to a fixed degree. Because the hydrogen atom enters into a very confining space, its energy is driven to extremes by this quantum effect. The metal bonds of the cavity absorb this energy of confinement and the atom's temperature eventually equilibrates with that of the lattice. As more hydrogen atoms enter the micro cavity, this new resident atom becomes even more energetic since it has even less space to occupy inside the cavity. This atom's energy will eventually be cooled by the lattice until its temperature eventually equilibrates with that of the lattice. As more hydrogen atoms enter the cavity, the quantum effects pressure caused by the entrance of that new atom in its turn becomes so great that the pressure reaches a level sufficient to produce a crystal of ultra dense hydrogen. The engineering takeaways from this quantum compression process: There is an ideal size that a microcavity should be. That size should be just large enough to contain the finished UDH crystal and no bigger. The LENR fuel preparation process that the successful LENR reactor builders undertake requires a long time for the production of ultra dense hydrogen to occur. If sufficient time for the long term absorption of hydrogen and associated quantum compression is not allowed, then the UDH will not reach the proper pressure for UDH formation to occur. The hydrogen must be isotropically pure for UDH to form. If lithium is used in conjunction with hydrogen, Ultra dense lithium hydride will form requiring just 1/4 of the quantum pressure. But both the lithium and hydrogen must be isotropically pure. Any isotope poisoning will kill the quantum compression process. That poisoned cavity will not from UDH from then on. LENR poisons like nitrogen will kill UDH formation, but after UDH formation, poisoning is no longer a consideration. The UDH will slowly exit the microcavities in which they were formed and activate the LENR reaction. The micrographs of the me356 fuel shows that UDH process and UDH falls from the metal micro cavity containment onto the carbon substrate to catalyze transmutation of carbon into metal.