There are claims that LENR extracts energy from the vacuum. The question
naturally arises about how can such an improbable thing can possibly happen.


A experiment done using a optical cavity shows how the vacuum can tap into
the vacuum fluctuations that occur in empty space to produce real effects.


http://www.pnas.org/content/110/11/4234.full.pdf


Dynamical Casimir effect in a Josephson metamaterial


This experiment shows how an optical cavity can be tuned electrically using
the KERR effect in such a way to convert virtual photons into real photons
through the adjustment of the index of refraction of the vacuum in the
cavity to produce a resonance based casimir effect.


The KERR effect is a mechanism to adjust the speed of light in the vacuum
so that the cavity can be modified into a resonance condition in such a way
as to use the casimir effect to extract real photons from the vacuum.


This KERR effect adjustment mechanism might be operable in LENR as well as
the EMDRIVE.


Quote

The zero-point energy stored in the modes of an electromagnetic cavity has
experimentally detectable effects, giving rise to an attractive interaction
between the opposite walls, the static Casimir effect. A dynamical version
of this effect was predicted to occur when the vacuum energy is changed
either by moving the walls of the cavity or by changing the index of
refraction, resulting in the conversion of vacuum fluctuations into real
photons.


Here, we demonstrate the dynamical Casimir effect using a Josephson
metamaterial embedded in a microwave cavity at 5.4 GHz. We modulate the
effective length of the cavity by flux-biasing the metamaterial based on
superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), which results in
variation of a few percentage points in the speed of light. We extract the
full 4 × 4 covariance matrix of the emitted microwave radiation,
demonstrating that photons at frequencies symmetrical with respect to half
of the modulation frequency are generated in pairs. At large detunings of
the cavity from half of the modulation frequency, we find power spectra
that clearly show the theoretically predicted hallmark of the Casimir
effect: a bimodal, “sparrow-tail” structure. The observed substantial
photon flux cannot be assigned to parametric amplification of thermal
fluctuations;
its creation is a direct consequence of the noncommutativity structure of
quantum field theory.

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