the neutron star pressure limit (1.5 to 3.0 solar masses),.
the neutron star pressure limit (1.33 solar masses)
On Sun, Jan 28, 2018 at 5:04 PM, Axil Axil <janap...@gmail.com> wrote:
> A post from can
> From the Tern Research website linked above by Ahlfors there's a press
> release dated 2017-12-26; it has some interesting tidbits. It looks like
> they're doing laser ablation experiments. Metals exposed to ultra-dense
> hydrogen would take significantly more time to ablate.
> * * * * *
> Press Release 12-26-17 Tern Research
> A Southern Utah entrepreneur has completed a series of experiments at
> Southern Utah University confirming that an unusual phase of deuterium can
> exist under the right conditions. This research is based on the work of
> Prof. Leif Holmlid at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.
> Mike Taggett, who founded Chums, a sports accessories company, in 1983, is
> a long time inventor and researcher. Since selling Chums in 2002, Mike has
> spent most of his time working on alternative energy projects and
> inventions. He has worked in two labs prior to the one in Cedar City in
> attempts to verify the existence of Ultra Dense Deuterium (UDD). Deuterium
> is an isotope of hydrogen, exists in sea water and contains a neutron along
> with the proton in its nucleus making it heavier than hydrogen.
> He has been studying dense deuterium for the past 5 years and has visited
> over 15 universities looking for a physics professor that would collaborate
> with him. "Most physics departments are pretty busy and they are reluctant
> to spend any time on a material they are skeptical about". He says. "I
> understand they are busy but Holmlid has spent over 12 years and has
> published over 30 papers; it's a significant discovery." In 2016, Mike was
> able to rent lab space at the University of Idaho and looked for changes in
> surface conductivity of metal samples being exposed to the catalyzed gas.
> "I was able to build up a good system; vacuum chamber, fast impedance
> analyzer, etc. but it turned out to be very tricky to get stable readings
> so the results were not reliable." I was trying to work there a year later
> in a laser lab but the project got stuck in bureaucracy." So Mike kept
> looking for places to work and did odd jobs to pay the bills.
> He had sold his home and was basically a science vagabond staying in cheap
> motels around the west. "I was staying in Cedar City and wandered over to
> SUU. I knew it was a 4 year teaching university, rather than having much
> research, but I thought I would take a look. I met Professor Ali Siahpush
> while waiting to see the Engineering Dept. Chair and I mentioned research
> and he said "Research? Great! If it aligns with our mission and you can use
> a student to help that would be great!" "Everyone was really helpful
> getting me going." Mike says. Mike was on a shoestring budget and built up
> a system with a rebuilt vacuum chamber, parts from eBay and a laser he
> borrowed from another university on condition he could repair it.
> Mike and his assistant Ben Thrift, an engineering student, had things up
> and running in 5 weeks. The work and data collection focused on comparing
> how the laser "ablates" the metal before and after deposition of the ultra
> dense layer (ablation is a term for removing material) and in this case the
> material evaporates directly from the solid rather than melting first.
> Mike says, "Looking into the vacuum chamber through the window, it looks
> like a welding torch when running as the pulsing laser is powerful but for
> very short times, about 5 nano seconds per pulse!" Mike and Ben ran over 20
> multi-day experiments on a variety of metals and saw a definite change
> after the dense layer formed. "It would take 200 -300% longer to ablate
> through the metal. Pretty amazing considering the invisible UDD layer is
> really thin, perhaps just atoms thick!" "Of course there is always the
> chance of an alternative explanation but right now the results are
> positive," he says.
> Mike thinks the dense deuterium could have applications for energy storage
> or space propulsion. "It's really fun and challenging to work in an
> emerging field. I am one of just three groups that I know of working on
> this." "Who knows what can be done with this unique material?"
> The next step he says is to further the work with different types of
> particle and energy detectors to better understand UDD. Mike says, "A big
> thanks to Julia Anderson, Dean Robert Eves and professors Ali Siahpush,
> Matt Roberts, Scott Munro and Sangho Bok for helping me get going at SUU."
> The electron spin wave on the surface of the ultra dense hydrogen protects
> UDH from destruction up until the neutron star pressure limit (1.5 to 3.0
> solar masses),.
> Holmlid states above as seen in his experiments as follows:
> Coulomb explosions in H(0) in spin state s = 1 generate protons with
> kinetic energies larger than the retaining gravitational energy at the
> photosphere of the Sun. The required proton kinetic energy above 2 keV has
> been directly observed in published experiments.
> 2KeV translates into a temperature of 20,000,000C.
> Eugene Wigner and Hillard Bell Huntington predicted that under an immense
> pressure of around 25 GPa (250,000 atm; 3,600,000 psi) hydrogen would
> display metallic properties:
> If it takes that much pressure to form metallic hydrogen, it should
> require at least that much pressure to destroy it.
> When Silvera and Dias managed to turn hydrogen metallic, it was at a
> pressure of 495 GPa, well beyond the 360 GPa of Earth's core.
> That is 4,950,000 atm of pressure at least to destroy it.
> But when metallic hydrogen forms, then you need to deal with degeneracy
> View this video to understand degeneracy pressure.
> Electron degeneracy pressure will halt the gravitational collapse of a
> star if its mass is below the Chandrasekhar limit (1.39 solar masses).
> This is the pressure that prevents a white dwarf star from collapsing. A
> star exceeding this limit and without significant thermally generated
> pressure will continue to collapse to form either a neutron star or black
> hole, because the degeneracy pressure provided by the electrons is weaker
> than the inward pull of gravity.
> This video is informative also.
> Where to Find Some Metallic Hydrogen - Ask a Spaceman!
> It is all about degenerate electron pressure.