1) Previous century - Pyrolytic carbon shown to exhibit Meissner effect
(diamagnetism). Note: the interpretation of diamagnetism as a form of
superconductivity is controversial.
2) 2015 - Lithium layer on graphene shown to be superconductive at 2 degrees K
3) 2016 - Calcium layer between layers of graphene shown to be superconductive
at 4 degrees K
4) 2018 – Kawashima observes RTSC and Meissner effect in graphene (alkane
wetted) for 50 days at ambient temperature (new paper)
The question becomes – is diamagnetism itself a type of “local
superconductivity”? There are arguments on both sides of this issue.
Diamagnetism is usually a weak effect such as seen in elements like bismuth.
There is only one moderately strong diamagnetic material in nature – carbon,
when in the form denoted as “pyrolytic”. Pyrolytic carbon at one time
exhibited the strongest diamagnetic effect at room temperature of any known
substance (until recently). It is a form of graphite in which some covalent
bonds are formed between the graphene sheets.
IMHO, the diamagnetic form of magnetic repulsion should be recognized and
denoted as local superconductivity or nano-ring-current unless there are strong
reasons not to do so.
Electrons circulate around the 6 carbon atoms of a graphite/graphene ring which
is not fully populated in the valence field – and without loss. But in so doing
they lose the ability to conduct without loss in a linear vector. They still
exhibit good normal conductivity. This dynamic (ring current) works only with a
structured array instead of an elemental atom or crystal.
Bottom line- a structured diamagnetic material can have a magnetic permeability
far less than that of free space, and hence it expels external magnetic fields,
creating a repulsive field in response to an imposed field - and this is
essentially the same mechanism involved in the Meissner effect. In fact,
structured carbon appears to be a high temperature superconductor due to ring
current. This has applicability to LENR. (Chris Cooper patent and claims) since
the linear vector can be engineered into tubular form.
Another amazing form of carbon is called MLG – or “multilayered graphene”
(graphene itself is technically 2D - only one atom in thickness). A relevant
prediction is that we will see a form of patterned MLG exhibit a strong
Meissner effect at ambient temperature this year, which result is the natural
progression of the Kawashima work.
You heard it first on Vortex…. BTW the last paper below is the announcement by
Kawashima of Tokai University.