Jones— NICE FIND.
IMHO the issue of superconductivity is fuzzy because there is a fuzzy definition of the system of materials over which the alleged superconductivity extends. The fuzzy question is: Is the transfer of charge between coherent systems or within a coherent system? Within a coherent system the location of charge is a blur over time—uncertain; therefore, assigning the label of superconductivity to a coherent system IMHO is not warranted. I do consider that the magnetic coupling described in the paper by Kawashima may allow nuclear transmutations and/or “fusion” of nucleons within the graphine+ coherent system. An earlier report regarding many-body coupling is also pertinent: https://www.google.com/search?source=hp&ei=BOuFWsXKN4XqjwO0xqvYDg&q=High+temperature+pairing+in+a+strongly+interacting+two-dimensional+Fermi+gas&oq=High+temperature+pairing+in+a+strongly+interacting+two-dimensional+Fermi+gas&gs_l=psy-ab.12...5464.5464.0.7188.8.131.52.0.0.0.127.127.0j1.1.0....0...1c..64.psy-ab..0.0.0....0.NkZJHrZYTvA and this one regarding a number of papers discussing multi-body coupling: http://inspirehep.net/record/1333281/references >From the amount of research identified above, many folks are doing LENR >theory. As I have indicated before, IMHO the magnetic coupling related to >spin energy changes within coherent systems is what happens in LENR. >consistent with the observation of little or no high energy radiation during >LENR. Bob Cook From: JonesBeene Sent: Thursday, February 15, 2018 7:53 AM To: firstname.lastname@example.org<mailto:email@example.com> Subject: [Vo]:Superconductive carbon (MLG) Timeline: 1. Previous century - Pyrolytic carbon shown to exhibit Meissner effect (diamagnetism). Note: the interpretation of diamagnetism as a form of superconductivity is controversial. 2. 2015 - Lithium layer on graphene shown to be superconductive at 2 degrees K 3. 2016 - Calcium layer between layers of graphene shown to be superconductive at 4 degrees K 4. 2018 – Kawashima observes RTSC and Meissner effect in graphene (alkane wetted) for 50 days at ambient temperature (new paper) The question becomes – is diamagnetism itself a type of “local superconductivity”? There are arguments on both sides of this issue. Diamagnetism is usually a weak effect such as seen in elements like bismuth. There is only one moderately strong diamagnetic material in nature – carbon, when in the form denoted as “pyrolytic”. Pyrolytic carbon at one time exhibited the strongest diamagnetic effect at room temperature of any known substance (until recently). It is a form of graphite in which some covalent bonds are formed between the graphene sheets. IMHO, the diamagnetic form of magnetic repulsion should be recognized and denoted as local superconductivity or nano-ring-current unless there are strong reasons not to do so. Electrons circulate around the 6 carbon atoms of a graphite/graphene ring which is not fully populated in the valence field – and without loss. But in so doing they lose the ability to conduct without loss in a linear vector. They still exhibit good normal conductivity. This dynamic (ring current) works only with a structured array instead of an elemental atom or crystal. Bottom line- a structured diamagnetic material can have a magnetic permeability far less than that of free space, and hence it expels external magnetic fields, creating a repulsive field in response to an imposed field - and this is essentially the same mechanism involved in the Meissner effect. In fact, structured carbon appears to be a high temperature superconductor due to ring current. This has applicability to LENR. (Chris Cooper patent and claims) since the linear vector can be engineered into tubular form. Another amazing form of carbon is called MLG – or “multilayered graphene” (graphene itself is technically 2D - only one atom in thickness). A relevant prediction is that we will see a form of patterned MLG exhibit a strong Meissner effect at ambient temperature this year, which result is the natural progression of the Kawashima work. You heard it first on Vortex…. BTW the last paper below is the announcement by Kawashima of Tokai University. Ref: http://www.fourmilab.ch/fourmilog/archives/2013-03/001428.html https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsnano.5b07848 https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.09376