Dan masih ada manusia berotak anjing, baik yang beragama islam maupun yang 
beragama Nasrnai yang bilang teori Darwin hanya ngibuo dan telah dipatahkan...

Menyedihkan, sungugh menyedihkan betapa ortak mereka itu telah di rusak dan 
dibusukkan  oleh ajaran agama semitik yang hanya berdasarkan omong kosong dan 
kibulan itu.

Adalah bahagian dari usaha pecerdasan manusia Indoneisa untuk menunjukkan 
betapa dungunya ajaran agama semitik yang seperti juga ajaran agama lain 
hanyalah tahayul dan berdasarkane kapada omong kosong dan kibulan doang.


Thursday, Feb. 12, 2009
The Ever Evolving Theories of Darwin
By Carl Zimmer

What do Harry Potter, Sherlock Holmes, G.I. Joe and Charles Darwin have in 
common? They will all be coming to movie theaters this year. The only real 
person on that list will be played by Paul Bettany in the biopic Creation. And 
in true celebrity fashion, Darwin will be everywhere this year. In a 
convergence of anniversaries, Darwin would have turned 200 years old on Feb. 
12, and his landmark book, On the Origin of Species, turns 150 on Nov. 24. 
There will be documentaries, lectures, conferences and museum exhibits. 
Darwin-themed blogs are being launched, and a cartload of Darwin-related books 
are being published. A replica of H.M.S. Beagle, the ship that carried Darwin 
around the world, will retrace his path. This January, Stanford University let 
a group of 90 people do likewise--albeit more comfortably, on a private Boeing 

It's only fitting to recognize the accomplishments of a great biologist. But 
there's a risk to all this Darwinmania: some people may come away with a 
fundamental misunderstanding about the science of evolution. Once Darwin mailed 
his manuscript of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or 
the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life to his publisher, 
the science of evolution did not grind to a halt. That would be a bit like 
saying medicine peaked when Louis Pasteur demonstrated that germs cause 

Today biologists are exploring evolution at a level of detail far beyond what 
Darwin could, and they're discovering that evolution sometimes works in ways 
the celebrated naturalist never imagined. "The biological problems we're 
dealing with are much more complex," says Massimo Pigliucci, an evolutionary 
biologist at Stony Brook University in New York. "That said, it's a lot of fun. 
I'm not complaining."

Darwin developed his theory by gathering as much information as he could about 
life. He collected it while voyaging on the Beagle, by sitting in front of a 
microscope back in England and by writing to a global network of 
correspondents. Today, however, biologists can feast on a far bigger banquet of 
data. The fossil record was scanty in Darwin's day, but now it has pushed the 
evidence of life on Earth back to at least 3.4 billion years ago. And while 
Darwin recognized that variation and heredity were the twin engines that made 
evolution possible, he didn't know what made them possible. It would take 
almost a century after the publication of On the Origin of Species for 
biologists to determine that the answer was DNA.

DNA is like a genetic cookbook, using four molecular "letters" to spell out 
recipes for everything from hormones to heart valves. Biologists today are 
reading the 3.5 billion letters in the human genome as well as the DNA from 
thousands of other species, and they've amassed vast databases of genetic 
information that they can rummage through to learn about how life evolved.

Time and again, biologists are finding that Darwin had it right: evolution is 
the best way to explain the patterns of nature. "You just can't even start to 
make sense of all this data without a framework of evolution," says Günter 
Wagner, an evolutionary biologist at Yale University.

Darwin proposed that natural selection could gradually transform a species. 
Scientists have observed thousands of cases of natural selection in action. 
They've documented that beaks of finches on the Galápagos Islands have gotten 
thicker when droughts forced the birds to crack tough seeds to survive. They've 
observed bacteria develop resistance to drugs that were believed to be 
invincible. Now biologists are applying DNA-sequencing technology to natural 
selection, which lets them identify the individual genetic changes that boost 
reproductive success.

As populations adapt to their surroundings, they can gradually evolve into new 
species. "We now have, I think, a good understanding of how new species 
arise--that is, how biological diversity is created," says Jerry Coyne, an 
evolutionary biologist at the University of Chicago and the author of the new 
book Why Evolution Is True. "Darwin made little inroad into the problem, 
despite the title of his magnum opus."

Biologists have also found plenty of evidence to support Darwin's other major 
claim: that different species share a common ancestry. Over the past 15 years, 
for example, paleontologists have found several fossils of whales with legs, 
linking modern whales to their terrestrial ancestors. Besides studying fossils, 
biologists can discover the genealogy of species by looking at their DNA. The 
fossil record points to hippos and other hoofed mammals as being the closest 
living relatives of whales. So does their DNA. Our own DNA contains clues to 
the bonds we share with the rest of life--it turns out, for instance, that we 
are closer kin to mushrooms than to sunflowers.

It's been 1.5 billion years or more since our ancestors split off from our 
fungal cousins. How did the genome of our ancestor change so that it could 
produce two-legged primates? One part of the answer is that mutations over time 
altered genes that encode proteins, and some of those changes have been favored 
by natural selection. But that does not mean that our genome--the sum total of 
our human DNA--is a finely tuned collection of protein-coding genes. In fact, a 
lot of mutations that all humans carry neither helped nor harmed our ancestors. 
They spread just by chance. And a lot of our genome is not made up of 
protein-coding genes. In fact, 98.8% of it is not. Some of that 98.8% consists 
of "pseudogenes"--genes that once encoded proteins but no longer can because of 
a crippling mutation. They are the molecular equivalent of a vestigial tail, 
allowing us to see evolution's track.

Biologists are a long way from understanding the entire genome, but as they get 
to know its parts better, they're getting a more precise comprehension of one 
of the most important features of evolution: how complex organs evolve. The 
notion that something as intricate as an eye could have evolved, Darwin wrote, 
"seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree." But he argued that new 
complex organs could evolve through a series of intermediate forms.

Paleontologists can track some of life's transformations in fossils--observing 
how fins gradually evolved into feet, for example. But fins and feet and other 
complex structures are also encoded in DNA, and until the 1980s, biologists had 
almost no knowledge of the genes that built them. Over the past 25 years, 
biologists have identified many of the genes that help build embryos. A number 
of them help lay out the embryo's blueprint by letting cells know where they 
are. The cells absorb proteins floating around them, and the signals trigger 
the cells to make other proteins, which in turn clamp onto certain bits of DNA 
to switch neighboring genes on and off. This network of genes eventually leads 
a cell to give rise to an arm or a brain or a tongue.

These networks are so intricate that they probably put some limits on 
evolution's creative potential. Once a lineage of animals evolves networks for 
arms and legs, it's not easy for evolution to rewire the networks to produce, 
say, wheels. For one thing, many networks share some of the same genes. A 
change to a gene that improves one network may wreck another one. So for the 
most part, we're stuck with what evolution gave us.

Nevertheless, new traits have evolved. Once there were no brains, and now there 
are billions. Once you could search the entire world and never find a leaf. Now 
the world is green. Biologists are discovering some of the genetic secrets for 
evolving new traits. One is to recycle old genes.

Growing hair, for example, is a trait that evolved only in mammals. One of the 
key proteins in our hair is known as alpha-keratin. Not long ago, some Austrian 
and Italian researchers decided to search for alpha-keratin genes in animals 
that lack hair. They found those genes in chickens and lizards--which belong to 
the closest living lineages to mammals. Lizards build alpha-keratin in their 
claws. And it turns out that mammals do as well. The research suggests that the 
hairless ancestors of today's mammals already had alpha-keratin that was used 
to build their claws; only later was alpha-keratin borrowed to help build hair.

Darwin had no way of knowing this, since he had no way of examining DNA. If he 
did, he might well have rethought one of his most potent metaphors for 
evolution: the tree of life. It's not that the metaphor is wrong. Scientists 
regularly reconstruct evolutionary branches today. When a new disease breaks 
out, for example, the fastest way to figure out what to do is to determine what 
the pathogen is related to.

But there's more to the history of life than the branching of a tree. Every now 
and then, DNA moves between species. Viruses ferry genes from one host to 
another. Bacteria swap genes inside our bodies, evolving resistance to 
antibiotics in our own gut. Some 2 billion years ago, one of our single-celled 
ancestors took in an oxygen-consuming bacterium. That microbe became the 
thousands of tiny sacs found in each of our cells today, known as mitochondria, 
that let us breathe oxygen. When genes move this way, it's as if two branches 
of the tree of life are being grafted together.

Biologists have documented a vast amount of gene-swapping among single-celled 
organisms--which happen to make up most of the diversity of life on Earth. 
There are 10,000 species of bacteria in a spoonful of dirt, twice as many 
species as all the mammals in the world. In the genome of a typical microbe, 
most of the genes hopped from one species to another at some point in the 
history of life. In some ways, the history of life is indeed like a tree, 
sprouting new branches. But in some ways, it's also like a tapestry, emerging 
from a loom, its genetic threads woven together in new combinations.

In the mid-1900s, biologists succeeded in merging the newest biological 
developments at the time into a new vision of evolution known as the Modern 
Synthesis. Today a number of biologists argue that it's time for a new 
understanding of evolution, one that Pigliucci has called the Extended 
Evolutionary Synthesis. For now, they are fiercely debating every aspect of 
that synthesis--how important gene-swapping is to the course of evolution, for 
instance, and how gene networks get rewired to produce new traits.

Some researchers argue that many patterns of nature--such as the large number 
of species in the tropics--cannot be reduced to the effect of natural selection 
on individuals. They may be following rules of their own. "Which of these ideas 
is going to actually survive and prove fruitful is anybody's guess," says 
Pigliucci. "I don't see things coalescing for at least a decade or more."

Darwin predicted this. "We can dimly foresee that there will be a considerable 
revolution in natural history," he wrote at the end of On the Origin of 
Species. He saw his work not as the end of biology but as a beginning.

Putting Evolution to The Test. How does Darwin hold up?

Darwin's microscope. His research, given the technology, was robust

[This article contains a table. Please see hardcopy of magazine or PDF.]
DARWIN TODAY Species share a common ancestry, like branches on a tree Genetic 
studies confirm that different species have evolved from common ancestors. But 
DNA has also jumped from one species to another--turning parts of the tree of 
life into a web Humans evolved from apes in Africa Evidence from DNA indicates 
that chimpanzees and bonobos are the closest living relatives to humans. 
Fossils document the course of human evolution in Africa from apelike ancestors 
over the past 7 million years Natural selection is a powerful force driving 
evolution Natural selection's fingerprints can be detected in the human genome. 
But many mutations have spread thanks to pure chance (a process known as 
genetic drift) Complex traits like eyes can evolve through a series of 
intermediate steps Fossils have documented some of those steps in structures 
such as limbs and ears. Studies on DNA have shown how genes for building old 
organs have been "borrowed" to help build new

Zimmer is the author of the forthcoming book The Tangled Bank: An Introduction 
to Evolution

    * Find this article at:
    * http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1879213,00.html

Copyright © 2009 Time Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in 
part without permission is prohibited.

    Privacy Policy|Add TIME Headlines to your Site|Contact Us|Customer Service

Jusfiq Hadjar gelar Sutan Maradjo Lelo

Allah yang disembah orang Islam tipikal dan yang digambarkan oleh al-Mushaf itu 
dungu, buas, kejam, keji, ganas, zalim lagi biadab hanyalah Allah fiktif.


Kirim email ke