Hello Margaret,

I too, am lousy at science and definitely not a DNA expert.. but I do know that 
Y67 refers to testing to 67 male chromosomes for comparison with the Family 
Tree data base.   All males are XY. All females are XX. 

Testing to Y67 with 'Family Tree DNA', helped me establish that a chap, (I had 
been communicating with in England, [hello Peter G.]), had a line of Wilsons, 
where his male ancestor was the brother of my G.G.G.Grandfather, (living in 
Co.Tyrone in the early 1800’s).  Peter’s line descended from an Andrew Wilson 
born in the late 1700’s, my line came from Andrew’s brother, Joseph Wilson, 
also born in the late 1700’s. 

I was able to compare this U.K based chap against my Australian brother’s DNA, 
with another kind DNA participant in the USA. The Y67 Family Tree DNA results 
proved that my brother & he, shared the exact same G.G.G.Grandfather, (with no 
mutations or zero distance). Testing to the Y36 level confirmed that we were 
all closely related, (as far back as Andrew & Joseph Wilson’s father who was 
born in the mid 1700’s). Testing to Y67 showed the ‘Branch,' in the family, and 
allowed us to untangle our separate Wilson lines. Y67 DNA testing is a 
wonderful resource particularly when there are a lot of common names, who lived 
in close geographical proximity. 

Family Tree DNA does 3 main types of testing.  Male Only Paternal Surname line, 
(Y-DNA) Female Ancestors lines, (MtDNA), and Family Finder (all relationships 
and great for confirming suspected relationships with both male and female). 

With Family Tree DNA testing they offer testing at a number of levels. 

Y12 - Looking at 12 Chromosomes - Very Basic 
Y25 - Looking at 25 Chromosomes - Still very basic
Y36 - Looking at 36 Chromosomes - Good Starter Test 
Y67 - Looking at 67 Chromosomes - More detailed information regarding 
Y111 - Looking at 111 Chromosomes - Highly detailed 
Y500 - Looking at 500 Chromosomes - $$$$ Professional level that will also 
follow your male (Paternal line, through Father to Son only), going back 
thousands of years following a single migration path and line of descent from 
one male. (G.G.G.G.G. Grandfather, > G.G.G.G.G. Grandfather, > G.G.G.G.F. 
Grandfather, > G.G. G.Grandfather. > G.G. Grandfather, > G.Grandfather > 
Grandfather > Father > Son.). 

One of the best explanations I came across that helped me understand mutations, 
(used to describe genetic distances), 0, -1, - 2, - 3, is to imagine that your 
earliest ancestor is a piece of paper with the letter ‘e,’ typed on it that is 
to be photocopied, (creating his son).. That son carries YDNA ‘e’, chromosomal 
information directly from his father.. This son, then has his own son; but the 
photocopy grandson of our original ‘e,’ guy is a photocopy of a photocopy… and 
so on.. One can imagine that as time goes by, that a photocopy of a photocopy 
might being to fade (mutate) a little.. over time, For example; the ‘e' might 
end up looking a like an ‘o’..   so the original photocopy, (earliest know male 
ancestor) might have have been an ‘e,' but a generation or five later that ‘e’ 
might have mutated to an ‘o,’ and all the copies going forward will bear 
segments of DNA that look like an ‘o.’  Until the next mutation comes along… 

I do hope this lame explanation helps just a little.. 

With best wishes from balmy sub-tropical Brisbane, Australia 

Janet Fairless (nee Wilson) 
Researching Wilsons from the town lands of Cavandarragh & Whitehouse, Parish of 
Ardstraw, Co.Tyrone. Circa 1760’s to mid-1800’s.  

> On 10 Dec 2018, at 5:07 am, margaret marion via CoTyroneList 
> <cotyronelist@cotyroneireland.com> wrote:
> What do you mean make them Y67?
> I have done my Armstrong DNA on Family tree DNA.  I am kit 566581.  I am in 
> the Old Scottish Group.  I am also in the Armstrong Group. The closest 
> matches I have is number 6 - 10 which could be 10 or more generations away.  
> And few have a family tree posted. And every time I want to do something, it 
> costs me money.  I did the full test to start.
> I then did my Armstrong DNA with Ancestry and then downloaded it to gedmatch. 
>  In gedmatch I can see how many CM's we have in common and work out possible 
> relationships from that.
> I find Ancestry DNA affordable and easy to get a download from.
> My Armstrong gedmatch number is for Robert Armstrong A199189.
> My other Armstrong gedmatch number is Ed Mawson A192469.
> I appreciate the discussion, I learn something from them.
> I find I love to do the family research, always loved history.  But the DNA 
> stuff, does not stick in my brain, I hated biology etc in school.  Now I need 
> it.
> Margaret Marion
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