As we all know, the Baseline Requirements forbid signing certificates with SHA-1 after January 1, 2016. However, both the BRs and Mozilla policy are silent on the topic of OCSP response signatures. Theoretically, CAs could continue to sign OCSP responses with SHA-1 indefinitely. Indeed, among the 869 distinct OCSP responder URLs referenced in CT logs, 351 sign responses with SHA-1 (as of March 5, 2016).
( The BRs forbid SHA-1 for signing "certificates to verify OCSP responses" after January 1, 2017, but I take that to mean the signature on the OCSP responder's certificate, not the OCSP responses themselves.) Of those 351 responders, 209 will include an attacker-controlled nonce of arbitrary length in the signed response (I tested with up to 1kb nonces). This creates a condition *extremely* favorable for a chosen-prefix attack. The first ~200 bytes of the hash input are trivially predictable (the only variable parts are the "Produced At", "This Update", and "Next Update" fields, which are all based on the current time). This prefix is followed by the entirely attacker-controlled nonce. An attacker can predict the prefix and stash the collision bits in the nonce to create a collision with another preimage, such as a certificate. Fortunately, the majority of those responders sign responses using a certificate that is restricted by ExtendedKeyUsage to OCSP signing, so the worst that an attacker could do is forge OCSP responses. However, I found two responders that sign responses using CA:TRUE certificates that are trusted for server auth in NSS: 1. http://ocsp.buypass.no/ocsp/BPClass2CA1 signs responses with a root certificate ("Buypass Class 2 CA 1") trusted for server auth in NSS. There is no path length constraint. Raw request: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/sha1/buypass-response.ocsp Request text: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/sha1/buypass-response.txt Raw responder cert: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/sha1/buypass-response.crt Responder cert text: https://crt.sh/?q=0f4e9cdd264b025550d170806340214fe94434c9b02f697ec710fc5feafb5e38 2. http://ocsp.acedicom.edicomgroup.com/servidores signs responses with an intermediate cert which chains up to "ACEDICOM Root". There are no path length constraints in the chain. Raw request: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/sha1/acedicom-response.ocsp Request text: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/sha1/acedicom-response.txt Raw responder cert: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/sha1/acedicom-response.crt Responder cert text: https://crt.sh/?q=071fa8b9e12a9632cfcb5c7e2b96ab318ccb40591713d5f914834b682d481b45 Once a chosen-prefix attack on SHA-1 becomes viable, it will be possible to forge a trusted CA:TRUE certificate by creating a collision with an OCSP response from one of these two responders. This attack can be performed without a CA having to issue a SHA-1 certificate, or do anything that currently violates the BRs or Mozilla policy. In fact, exploiting a collision against an OCSP responder is much easier than exploiting a collision against the certificate issuance process. You can exploit it completely anonymously, you don't have to predict the serial number, and you have plenty of room for collision bits instead of having to smuggle them in the CSR's public key. The OCSP response is so predictable that an attacker could predict it months in advance, allowing plenty of time to compute the collision. In contrast, it took Stevens et al four attempts to predict even a sequential serial number when they forged their MD5 cert in 2008, and they spent hundreds of dollars on certs in the process. As a proof of concept, I have created an OCSP response and a CA:TRUE certificate which share the same MD5 signature: OCSP response: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/md5/poc-response.ocsp OCSP response text: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/md5/poc-response.txt Rogue certificate: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/md5/poc-rogue.crt Rogue certificate text: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/md5/poc-rogue.txt Root cert: https://www.agwa.name/misc/ocsp_collisions/md5/poc-root.crt Although this uses MD5 and my own root CA, it demonstrates that the OCSP format is amenable to chosen-prefix attacks, particularly with the attacker-controlled nonce and the very predictable prefix. We should therefore be concerned about the risk of OCSP responders which use SHA-1 and support nonces. I have thought of a few ways to address the risk: 1. Forbid the use of SHA-1 to sign OCSP responses, effective as soon as possible (consider that signing certificates with SHA-1 has been forbidden since January 1, 2016). 2. Forbid OCSP nonces. OCSP nonces are optional in practice and it's always risky to sign arbitrary attacker-controlled data. Or, limit nonces to 32 bytes, which is long enough for an anti-replay nonce but probably too short to exploit a chosen-prefix attack. 3. Require the use of a technically-constrained OCSP responder certificate when doing online signing of OCSP responses. This seems like a good security practice anyways, and most CAs are already doing this. However, OCSP responses could still be forged. What do others think? Regards, Andrew P.S. This underscores a point which I have made several times on this list in the last month: with a chosen-prefix attack, the forged certificate need not look anything like the data which the CA signs. As I've demonstrated here, a CA can sign an OCSP response that can be turned into a certificate. This is why various proposals like revoking certificates, embedding a poison extension, or blacklisting based on the notBefore date do absolutely nothing to address the risk of SHA-1: a forged certificate--the certificate that clients need to reject--won't have any of the markings (serial number, poison extension, notBefore date) that the CA placed in the "legitimate" SHA-1 certificate. It's also why it's so important that *anything* signed by a CA that is trusted for server auth be in-scope for the BRs and Mozilla Policy, as Ryan, Rob, and I have said. ( https://www.mail-archive.com/dev-security-policy%40lists.mozilla.org/msg02994.html) _______________________________________________ dev-security-policy mailing list firstname.lastname@example.org https://lists.mozilla.org/listinfo/dev-security-policy