On 10/1/2012 3:54 AM, Alberto G. Corona wrote:

    You've only demonstrated your own prejudice against reason.

no comment

    Evolution produces many designs that are suboptimal, because natural 
selection only
    requires that a design be 'good-enough'

suboptimal for what? optimal has a meaning for a finite set of requirements, but not for a almost infinite set of them. good enough is the best design when you have not a single optimization but hundreds of them at different levels. the best trade of between opposite requirements may be the optimum global solution, even if there is no optimal solution for each individual requirement. Do you agree?

I agree that there are no optimal solutions except relative to some well defined criteria. But it is you who were praising evolution as more clever than reason. Yet even absent well defined criteria, some 'designs' are better than others and can be seen to be so by reason. It's just obfuscation to say, well there are no well defined criteria so nothing can be judged better or worse.

    Arthropods make an elastic protein, rezulin, which is much more elastic 
than that in
    molluscs (abductin) and in vertebrates (elastin). Thus a fly can flap it's 
    with less energy loss than a horse can run or a scallop can swim.

Probably the artropods can trade durability or repearability for elasticity. who knows. Do you?.

Now you're just making things up.  Do you know rezulin is more or less 
reparable than elastin?

All are natural designs. What is the problem?. Probably Artropods rely more in elasticity by the nature of the skeleton.

More unsupported conjecture.  Where is your evidence for this?

In the same way a parasite is an step before the host defenses in parasiting strategies because the parasite has more pressure to be ahead.

I fail to see an analogy.

    The nerves in a mammals eye join the photoreceptor cells at the end facing 
    pupil. They run across the inside surface of the retina and exit together. 
    they exit they create a 'blind spot' in our field of vision. So, first, 
they partly
    obstruct the retina and, second, they create a blind spot.

This is the vaunted topic of the eye in the mammals. Contrary to other clades The eyes of mamals can rotate, that is a greath advantage. to rotate they have to be spherical. to be spherical the nerves have to be internal.

But they could be spherical exactly as they are with the photoreceptor cells flipped end for end so that they faced the light instead of the photons having to pass through the nerves. This would also eliminate the blind spot. Incidentally cephalpods can also see polarization.

being internal they have to exit trough a place, to exit, it creates a blind spot. but the faculty of rotating and focusing an object without having to move the entire head or body is a far greater advantage than in non mammals, even if the cost is a blind spot (which does not appear in the brain image, because the eye constantly rotates)

You are just inventing stuff.

this does not means that octopuses , which have no blind spot have an "inferior" eye . Probably it is perfect for its requirements.

    People swallow and breathe through a shared passage. A design that results 
in many
    deaths due to choking on food.

That is a optimum design for a mammal with articulated talk that still can 

After complaining that there can be no optimal, now you are claiming an evolutionary design is optimal. Yet dolphins communicate with separate breathing and swallowing channels. Are they suboptimal?

Trade offs appear in any design, there is no way to avoid trade offs when there is more than one requirement. In the ideal world of progressivia perhaps this does not happens.

"Trade offs" implies a simple binary choice. A human designer considers different performance variables and weighs them. Of course there is no single opitmum, but there are still some designs that are better than others.

    Oxidation of fatty acids unnecessarily reverses the handedness of 
methylmaloyl. In
    the biosynthesis of some plant alkaloids, reticuline is formed in the S
    configuration and then inverted to the R configuration; a step which could 
have been
    avoided by just using the S form for all the alkaloids. Lysine is 
biosynthesized via
    two different parallel processes when one would have served.

Probable we don愒 know the whole story. As many cases in evolution. The last case is the so called "Junk DNA" which was supposed to be redundant, has a crucial function,

And what is that crucial function you have discovered - a Nobel prizes awaits.

but self appointed biological engineers considered it a failure of evolution

    The designer of a larger and heavier vehicle on the softer surface uses 
more wheels
    to avoid sinking into the surface. Yet among animals the small ones, 
    have six or more legs; while the large animals have two or four. Why don't 
    heavy animals like elephants and rhinoceri have six or more legs?

The surface in contact with the ground is independent of the number of legs. Elephants and Camels have all the surface they need for the weight and the soil they walk over.

But at the expense of having heavy pillar-like legs which slows their gait.

    When animals with fur get cold little muscles attached to each hair folicle 
    the hairs to stand up thus thickening the fur and increasing its insulative 
    Humans also have these muscles which cause 'goosebumps' when we're cold. 
    increases our surface area and increases our loss of heat.

This is really interesting.

Another function badly understood. this muscle goosebumps increase the heat production. A muscle, when contracted produce heat. goosebumps is a side effect of this adaptation for heat production. it also has additional functions: goosebumps increase the perceived size of the animal. many animals bristle hair when in front of a menace.

There are various levels of muscular contraction to produce heat: the goosebumps are the second level response, the shivering is the third. but the first is the muscular contraction of the muscles, specially in the back. That愀 why heating relax the muscles. If you have a muscular pain in the back, just dress warm.

More just-so stories to avoid admitting that evolution produces some inferior 

    In the human male the urinary tract passes through the center of the 
prostate gland;
    a gland given to swelling. This stupid design causes a lot of pain and 
    for older men.

I don愒 know why. neither you

Actually I do.


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