Dear Jürgen Zangenberg and Joe Zias, Thank you for your replies. I admire both of your contributions to the field and hoped you would respond. Joe, I will reread your article from DSD. On the relationship between Qumran and Ain el-Ghuweir, as I recall a recent article in IEJ on spectrographic analysis of the pottery clays showed no connection, and the stratigraphy shows the sites have different occupation histories, so the similarities in the cemeteries is somewhat of a puzzle. If I am to understand both your replies correctly, graves of the same architecture as Kenyon described have been found elsewhere in Judea (though not with the same orientation or grave goods). This is an interesting datum. I'm not sure characterizing the grave type as Essene (as Kenyon did) is particularly helpful. "Qumran grave type" might be a more objective description. The poverty of grave goods isn't as much of a signature of Qumran as it used to be, in light of the recently discovered mausoleum with zinc-lined coffin! It seems to me this find indicates a social stratification at Qumran between rich owners and relatively impoverished agricultural workers much as was undoubtedly the case in other estates in and around Jericho. The ostracon discovered at Qumran, which Yardeni's decipherment showed to be a simple agricultural deed of transfer, appears to document a fairly straight forward connection between Qumran and Jericho landowners IMO. As I recall there are also some parallels in the aqueducts of Qumran and the lower Jordan valley (and other sites). Perhaps Jürgen you could elaborate on archaeological links you see between Jericho and Qumran. It seems to me that regional archaeological patterns and connections have been historically somewhat neglected in favor of a sectarian interpretation of the Qumran site.
Best regards, Russell Gmirkin For private reply, e-mail to [EMAIL PROTECTED] ---------------------------------------------------------------- To unsubscribe from Orion, e-mail to [EMAIL PROTECTED] with the message: "unsubscribe Orion." Archives are on the Orion Web site, http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il. (PLEASE REMOVE THIS TRAILOR BEFORE REPLYING TO THE MESSAGE)