Okay, I'm made some exciting progress and I am grateful for the help.  I will 
show to people how I got this working

At first thought, I figured that it would simply be the IMAP password used by 
Dovecot to access my mailbox.  Not exactly true...  I did some digging in some 
blogs and the documentation for Dovecot and Postfix.  I configured Dovecot to 
authenticate using a SHA512 encrypted password in a SQL database, just as was 
posted in a blog some time back (Reference 1).  I found out that I can have 
SASL authentication for Postfix via Dovecot.  I made a few changes according to 
a blog post (Reference 2)

I can send and receive mail from Thunderbird now, which resolves this long and 
tortured thread.

For the good of the internet community, I am sharing my configuration in it's 
working state.


After all this, my main.cf has evolved to become:

mydomain = example.com
smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name (Ubuntu)
biff = no
append_dot_mydomain = no
readme_directory = no

# TLS parameters
smtpd_tls_security_level = may
smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1
smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem
smtpd_tls_key_file=/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem
#smtpd_use_tls=yes
#smtpd_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtpd_scache
smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtp_scache

#Added December 1, 2016 TLS parameters
smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
smtpd_tls_auth_only = no
smtpd_use_tls=yes
smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
#end December 1, 2016 TLS parameters

smtpd_relay_restrictions = permit_mynetworks permit_sasl_authenticated 
defer_unauth_destination
myhostname = example.com
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
myorigin = /etc/mailname
#mydestination = $myhostname, example.com, localhost.com, , localhost
mydestination = localhost
relayhost = 
mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8 [::ffff:127.0.0.0]/104 [::1]/128
mailbox_size_limit = 0
recipient_delimiter = +
inet_interfaces = all
inet_protocols = all
virtual_transport = lmtp:unix:private/dovecot-lmtp
virtual_mailbox_domains = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-mailbox-domains.cf
virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-mailbox-maps.cf
virtual_alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-alias-maps.cf

#Added December 1 to enable SASL with Dovecot
smtpd_sasl_type = dovecot
smtpd_sasl_path = private/auth
smtpd_sasl_local_domain = example.com
smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks, permit_sasl_authenticated, 
reject_unauth_destination
#End December 1 SASL/Dovecot parameters

and the master.cf has become:

==========================================================================
# service type  private unpriv  chroot  wakeup  maxproc command + args
#               (yes)   (yes)   (no)    (never) (100)
# ==========================================================================
smtp      inet  n       -       y       -       -       smtpd
submission inet n       -       n       -       -       smtpd
  -o syslog_name=postfix/submission
  -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt
  -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
 -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
 -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
pickup    unix  n       -       y       60      1       pickup
cleanup   unix  n       -       y       -       0       cleanup
qmgr      unix  n       -       n       300     1       qmgr
tlsmgr    unix  -       -       y       1000?   1       tlsmgr
rewrite   unix  -       -       y       -       -       trivial-rewrite
bounce    unix  -       -       y       -       0       bounce
defer     unix  -       -       y       -       0       bounce
trace     unix  -       -       y       -       0       bounce
verify    unix  -       -       y       -       1       verify
flush     unix  n       -       y       1000?   0       flush
proxymap  unix  -       -       n       -       -       proxymap
proxywrite unix -       -       n       -       1       proxymap
smtp      unix  -       -       y       -       -       smtp
relay     unix  -       -       y       -       -       smtp
showq     unix  n       -       y       -       -       showq
error     unix  -       -       y       -       -       error
retry     unix  -       -       y       -       -       error
discard   unix  -       -       y       -       -       discard
local     unix  -       n       n       -       -       local
virtual   unix  -       n       n       -       -       virtual
lmtp      unix  -       -       y       -       -       lmtp
anvil     unix  -       -       y       -       1       anvil
scache    unix  -       -       y       -       1       scache
maildrop  unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
  flags=DRhu user=vmail argv=/usr/bin/maildrop -d ${recipient}
uucp      unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
  flags=Fqhu user=uucp argv=uux -r -n -z -a$sender - $nexthop!rmail ($recipient)
ifmail    unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
  flags=F user=ftn argv=/usr/lib/ifmail/ifmail -r $nexthop ($recipient)
bsmtp     unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
  flags=Fq. user=bsmtp argv=/usr/lib/bsmtp/bsmtp -t$nexthop -f$sender $recipient
scalemail-backend unix  -       n       n       -       2       pipe
  flags=R user=scalemail argv=/usr/lib/scalemail/bin/scalemail-store ${nexthop} 
${user} ${extension}
mailman   unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
  flags=FR user=list argv=/usr/lib/mailman/bin/postfix-to-mailman.py
  ${nexthop} ${user}


References:

(1)  
https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-configure-a-mail-server-using-postfix-dovecot-mysql-and-spamassassin
(2)  http://xmodulo.com/enable-user-authentication-postfix-smtp-server-sasl.html

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