According to SQLite documentation, it does not depend on locale, because it
is a pure ASCII implementation:

"The upper(X) function returns a copy of input string X in which all
lower-case ASCII characters are converted to their upper-case equivalent."
ASCII character was designed for English US, so the context of the
conversion is implicit.

If we speak about Unicode, the lower/upper casing operations depend on
locale. The prominent use-cases are:

- Turkish/Azeri dotted/dotless I
- Greek upper case sigma which depending on the context can be converted to
small sigma or to final small sigma
- German ß to SS conversion which is not bidirectional. Someone can
uppercase ß into SS, but the reverse operation is not allowed. 

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