Well, Fuseki is exactly the HTTP layer on top of Jena. Without Fuseki,
which protocol do you want to use to communicate with Jena? The SPARQL
protocol [1] perfectly standardizes the communication via HTTP. Without
Fuseki, who should do the HTTP handling? Clearly, you could setup your
own Java server and do all the communication by yourself, e.g. using low
level sockets etc. - whether this makes sense, I don't know. I'd always
prefer standards, especially if you already have something like Fuseki
which does all the connection handling.

[1] https://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-http-rdf-update/

On 12.03.2018 17:10, Laura Morales wrote:
> When I want to connect to a database such as postgres, there are various 
> "bindings" for any language, for example java, python, php, c, etc. These are 
> usually called "drivers" or "bridges" or something like that. As far as I 
> understand, this piece of software takes my query, opens a TCP connection to 
> the database server and exchanges data using a custom protocol, then returns 
> the results.
> I would like to understand if this is also how Jena works, or if the only way 
> to connect remotely to a server is with a HTTP request. Is it possible to run 
> Jena as a standalone server and connect to it without Fuseki? My setup is 
> [jena/fuseki] <--internet--> [php/python] and the way I connect to the server 
> is with a HTTP GET request.
> Thanks.

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