In LENR fusion, the fusing of two protons which is the first step of the
proton-proton cycle created great problems for early theorists because they
recognized that the interior temperature of the sun (then 20,000,000C, but
now assumed to be some 14 million Kelvins) would not provide nearly enough
energy to overcome the coulomb barrier of electric repulsion between two

With the development of quantum mechanics, it was realized that on this
scale the protons must be considered to have wave properties and that there
was the possibility of tunneling through the coulomb barrier.

Arthur Eddington thought that nuclear processes must be involved to account
for the radiant energy of the sun, but was criticized because the
temperature was seen to be not hot enough when considered by classical
physics alone. His tongue-in-cheek reply to his critics: "I am aware that
many critics consider the stars are not hot enough. The critics lay
themselves open to an obvious retort; we tell them to go and find a hotter

Even so, it was unclear how proton–proton fusion might proceed, because the
most obvious product, helium-2 (proton), is unstable and almost instantly
dissociates back into two protons. In 1939, Hans Bethe proposed that one of
the protons could decay by beta emission into a neutron via the weak
interaction during the brief moment of fusion, making deuterium a vital
product in the chain.

Most of the time, when two protons collide together, they simply do just
that: collide, and bounce off one another. But under just the right
conditions, with high enough temperatures and densities, they can fuse
together to form a state of helium you’ve probably never heard of: a
diproton, made up of two protons and no neutrons.

The overwhelming majority of the time, the diproton — an incredibly
unstable configuration — simply decays back into two protons.

But every rare once-in-a-while, less than 0.01% of the time, this diproton
will undergo beta-plus decay, where it emits a positron (the electron’s
antiparticle), a neutrino, and where the proton transmutes into a neutron.

While it takes on the average 10 billion years for two protons in the core
of the Sun to fuse together into deuterium, it takes only about a second
for deuterium to fuse with a proton and become helium-3.

This diproton idea was part of the body of work in stellar nucleosynthesis
for which Bethe won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967.

In a LENR reactor that uses a 1/10 of a gram of fuel to produce the LENR
reaction, how can PP fusion be occurring?

If the core of the sun cannot overcome the coulomb barrier, how can
hydrogen in a metal lattice produce pp fusion?

Solar observational science has improved greatly in just the last few
years. So rethinking about solar nuclear reactions are now in order.
Recently through analysis of the solar wind, the magnetic ropes that
generate mass coronal ejections generate 10,000 times more He3 than the
ambient solar concentration of that helium isotope. And that isotope is
transmuted in just an hour or two, even through the temperatures produced
in the magnetic ropes are just 10,000,000C. Something is wrong with the
solar model that has been generally accepted and is now in place.

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