Right, but since we understand that such an alien observation would be in error, we must give our own experience the benefit of the doubt. The computer does not deserve any such benefit of the doubt, since there is no question that it has been assembled intentionally from controllable parts. When we see a ventriloquist with a dummy, we do not entertain seriously that we could be mistaken about which one is really the ventriloquist, or whether they are equivalent to each other. Looking at natural presences, like atoms or galaxies, the scope of their persistence is well beyond any human relation so they do deserve the benefit of the doubt. We have no reason to believe that they were assembled by anything other than themselves. The fact that we are made of atoms and atoms are made from stars is another point in their favor, whereas no living organism that we have encountered is made of inorganic atoms, or of pure mathematics, or can survive by consuming only inorganic atoms or mathematics. Craig > > -- > Stathis Papaioannou > -- You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "Everything List" group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to everything-list+unsubscr...@googlegroups.com. To post to this group, send email to email@example.com. Visit this group at http://groups.google.com/group/everything-list. For more options, visit https://groups.google.com/groups/opt_out.