Why computer consciousness and artificial intelligence are impossible.
Acccording to Bertrand Russell, there are two types of knowledge:
a) Knowledge by description. It is common knowledge that Obama is president.
Example: Computer code. Artificial intelligence. Third person singular.
b) Knowledge by experience. You have met Obama.
Example: Human perception. Human intelligence. First person singular.
Computers cannot simulate human activities or experiences
or consciousness because they have to deal in code, which
consists of instructions or descriptions. Computers cannot
deal in knowledge by experience, so they cannot experience,
produce experiences, or understand experiences.
Thus computer intelligence and artificial intelligence are impossible.
Computers deal in code (third person singular). Only people and other
living entities can deal in experiences or be conscious (first person
So only humans and other living entities can be conscious or be truly
Thus artificial intelligence is impossible
Dr. Roger B Clough NIST (ret.) [1/1/2000]
See my Leibniz site at
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