This comment is restricted to the proposed use of mathematical structures in 
context of the social.

The mathematical structure of a tree is restricted by the notion of a cycle. 
A tree is readily converted into a cycle by simply adding a new edge between 
leaves or joints.
The simple logic of a tree is lost by including cyclic relations.

It appears to me that the rhetorical arguments may include inferences requiring 
cycle relations.

What would be the nature of the inferences if the hypotheses allowed for cyclic 
social processes, such as learning on the basis of annual agricultural or 
hunting cycles?




On Jul 22, 2015, at 7:33 AM, Pedro C. Marijuan wrote:

> The informational foundation of the act
> Fernando Flores
> Lund University
> Luis de-Marcos
> University of Alcalá
> See the whole text at:
> Our introducing paper (35 pages) presents a theory that quantifies the 
> informational value of human acts. We argue that living is functioning 
> against entropy and following Erwin Schrödinger we call this tendency 
> “negentropy”. Negentropy is for us the reason behind “order” in social and 
> cultural life. Further, we understand “order” as the condition that the world 
> reaches when the informational value of a series of acts is low. Acting is 
> presented as a set of decisions and choices that create order and this is the 
> key concept of our understanding of the variation from simplicity to 
> complexity in human acts. The most important aim of our theory is to measure 
> non-economic acts trying to understand and explain their importance for 
> society and culture. In their turn such a theory will be also important to 
> understand the similarities and differences between non-economic and economic 
> acts. 
> We follow the classical concept according to which informational value is 
> proportional to the unlikelihood of an act. To capture the richness of the 
> unlikelihood of human acts we use the frequency theory of probability 
> developed by Ludwig von Mises and Karl Popper. Frequency theory of 
> probability allows us to describe a variety of acts from the must most “free” 
> to the least “free” with respect to precedent acts. In short, we characterize 
> human acts in terms of their degree of freedom trying to set up a scale of 
> the information and predictability carried out in human decisions. A taxonomy 
> of acts is also presented, categorizing acts as destructive, mechanical, 
> ludic or vital, according to their degree of freedom (complexity). A 
> formulation to estimate the informational value in individual and collective 
> acts follows. The final part of the paper presents and discuss the 
> consequences of our theory. We argue that artifacts embed information and 
> that modernization can be understood as a one-way process to embed acts of 
> high levels of complexity in simple devices. However, our theory assumes that 
> the total amount of information in the social and cultural world is constant 
> and that Modernity only enables us to redistribute our informational 
> potential. We also advocate for the development of a new science named 
> “agnumetry”, the science that quantify Modernity, measuring the obsolescence 
> of an environment (from agnumy the Greek word for “break”). 
> In our study of human acts we found that acting can also be classified as 
> productive, consumptive and as acts of exchange or economical. The 
> informational value of acts can be the expression of any or all of these 
> acting forms. We outline the relation between the informational value of 
> production and the informational value of consumption (which we call 
> “operative information”), and conclude that these acts define the 
> non-economic value. Sometimes, and depending on the social level of 
> informational value, the acts of exchange emerge defining the informational 
> value of an item at the market, an informational value that assumes the shape 
> of “price” justifying the use of money.
> -- 
> -------------------------------------------------
> Pedro C. Marijuán
> Grupo de Bioinformación / Bioinformation Group
> Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud
> Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Aragón (CIBA)
> Avda. San Juan Bosco, 13, planta X
> 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
> Tfno. +34 976 71 3526 (& 6818)
> -------------------------------------------------
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