Attached is is a new patch addressing Petr's review comment as well as some sample output for illustration purposes (I suggest you review the example.txt).

Rather than wading through a log of dialog in the previous emails let me address Petr's issues and how I addressed them.


The option parsing is totally reworked (see example.txt). Not only is optparse being used, but the options have been simplified and appear in groups. The script can do a variety of different things so you must specify the mode you want it to run in. I don't see an obvious candidate for a default mode, plus most users will run it as a make target anyway obviating the need to specify any command line options.

I logically divided the validation checks, one for checking the English source strings (pot file) and one for checking the translations (po files). These represent two of the three possible modes of operations.

Petr's has said several times that he would prefer the English sources strings be checked by other tests. I presume he is referring to the unit tests, but we do not have any such unit test nor are we likely to (at least not for string validation). The reason is you have to have available the set of strings from the sources which have been marked for translation. It's a somewhat complicated process to produce that set of strings and that logic are part of the install/po area, namely the generation of the pot file. This is the only logical place I can see for performing tests and/or validation on (translatable) source strings. I do not envision the validation ever being part of a unit test, it is functionally very different. There is a good argument for generating a new pot file and validating it on every code check-in. This patch does not do that, instead it's done when the pot file is generated manually, but it would be trival to add that feature once this framework is in place.

However a good case could be made for the gettext test currently implemented in test_i18n.py being invoked as a unit test but there would be some structural work needed to make that happen (e.g. assuring the test mo file is generated and pointed to and calling things through IPA Gettext classes and having the framework run in the context of that locale). But we've never had a failure in that area yet so I'd be inclined to defer that at the moment, open a new ticket to integrate the gettext test in test_i18n.py with the test_text.py in the unit tests and consider that a separate work item so as not let it interfere with getting this committed. Being able to run the gettext test in the translation directory is valuable none-the-less. It would be better if it were fully integrated with our Gettext classes in text.py but that is best left as another task.

By dividing the validation checks between the pot file and po files I think I addressed the majority of Petr's concerns over the validation of source strings. Petr also alluded Transifex errors as if Transifex would somehow catch the translation problems, but no such error checking exists (actually I'm considering giving this code to upstream Transifex, they're entirely Python based and they might find parts of it useful)

But wait there's more ...

Some of the validations were producing false positives because the validator could not determine whether some uses of $ and % were valid or mangled syntax. So I added a pedantic flag. It's off by default and skips checking for errors which are unlikely to be present and are difficult to check. You can run the validation with --pedantic as a safeguard and interpret the results. I thought this was preferred to removing the ability to perform the checks whatsoever.

I also added a --show-strings flag so along with a error message and location it will output the offending string(s). This if off by default for brevity purposes but is useful for those having to make fixes or just to better understand the nature of the error.

I tried to make the error output a bit less verbose with better formatting.

I updated .gitignore to ignore the generated test files.

--
John Dennis <jden...@redhat.com>

Looking to carve out IT costs?
www.redhat.com/carveoutcosts/
$ ./test_i18n.py --help
Usage:

test_i18n.py --test_gettext
test_i18n.py --validate-pot [pot_file1, ...]
test_i18n.py --validate-po po_file1 [po_file2, ...]


Options:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -s, --show-strings    show the offending string when an error is detected
  --pedantic            be aggressive when validating
  -v, --verbose         be informative
  --traceback           print the traceback when an exception occurs

  Operational Mode:
    You must select one these modes to run in

    -g, --test-gettext  create the test translation file(s) and exercise them
    -P, --validate-pot  validate pot file(s)
    -p, --validate-po   validate po file(s)

  Run Time Parameters:
    These may be used to modify the run time defaults

    --test-lang=TEST_LANG
                        test po file uses this as it's basename (default=test)
    --lang=LANG         lang used for locale, MUST be a valid lang
                        (default=xh_ZA)
    --domain=DOMAIN     translation domain used during test (default=ipa)
    --locale=LOCALE     locale used during test (default=test_locale)
    --pot-file=POT_FILE
                        default pot file, used when validating pot file or
                        generating test po and mo files (default=ipa.pot)



$ make test
./test_i18n.py --test-gettext
Wrote: test.po
Wrote: test_locale/xh_ZA/LC_MESSAGES/ipa.mo
1707 translations in 1681 messages successfully tested


# Output snipped for brevity

$ make validate-pot
./test_i18n.py --show-strings --validate-pot ipa.pot
================================================================================
75 validation errors in ipa.pot
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
locations: ipalib/plugins/aci.py:256
msgid has anonymous substitution '%s', use keyword substitution instead
>>> msgid <<<
Group '%s' does not exist
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
locations: ipalib/plugins/aci.py:392
msgid has anonymous substitution '%s', use keyword substitution instead
>>> msgid <<<
ACI with name "%s" not found
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
locations: ipa-client/ipa-getkeytab.c:85
msgid has anonymous substitution '%s', use keyword substitution instead
msgid has anonymous substitution '%d', use keyword substitution instead
>>> msgid <<<
Kerberos context initialization failed: %s (%d)
================================================================================
75 errors in 1 files
make: *** [validate_pot] Error 1


$ make validate-pot
./test_i18n.py --show-strings --validate-po  as.po  bn_IN.po  zh_CN.po  
zh_TW.po  nl.po  fr.po  de.po  el.po  gu.po  id.po  ja_JP.po  ja.po  kn.po  
fa.po  pl.po  pt_BR.po  pt.po  ru.po  es.po  sv.po  uk.po
================================================================================
5 validation errors in es.po
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
locations: ipalib/plugins/internal.py:270
The following substitutions are absent in msgstr: ${primary_key} ${entity}
>>> msgid <<<
Issue New Certificate for ${entity} ${primary_key}
>>> msgstr <<<
Nuevo número de certificados de
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
locations: ipalib/plugins/internal.py:284
The following substitutions are absent in msgstr: ${primary_key} ${entity}
>>> msgid <<<
Restore Certificate for ${entity} ${primary_key}
>>> msgstr <<<
Restaurar Certificado para
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
locations: ipalib/plugins/internal.py:286
The following substitutions are absent in msgstr: ${primary_key}
>>> msgid <<<
Revoke Certificate for ${entity} ${primary_key}
>>> msgstr <<<
Revocar certificado por ${entity} ${primary_key
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
locations: ipalib/plugins/internal.py:295
The following substitutions are absent in msgstr: ${primary_key}
>>> msgid <<<
Certificate for ${entity} ${primary_key}
>>> msgstr <<<
Certificado para ${entity} ${primary_key
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
locations: ipalib/plugins/internal.py:395, ipalib/plugins/internal.py:434
The following substitutions are absent in msgstr: ${entity}
>>> msgid <<<
Unprovisioning ${entity}
>>> msgstr <<<
Unprovisioning
================================================================================
5 errors in 21 files
make: *** [validate_po] Error 1

>From 358b5fbacf662f8e08778edb0e30bb679f31a10b Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
From: John Dennis <jden...@redhat.com>
Date: Fri, 23 Mar 2012 01:44:04 -0400
Subject: [PATCH 66-2] Replace broken i18n shell test with Python test
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

We had been using shell scripts and sed to test our translations. But
trying to edit pot and po files with sed is nearly impossible because
the file format can vary significantly and the sed editing was failing
and gettext tools were complaining about our test strategy.  We had
been using a Python script (test_i18n.py) to perform the actual test
after using shell, sed, and gettext tools to create the files. There
is a Python library (polib) which can read/write/edit pot/po/mo files
(used internally by Transifex, our translation portal). The strategy
now is to do everything in Python (in test_i18n.py). This is easier,
more robust and allows us to do more things.

* add python-polib to BuildRequires

* Remove the logic for creating the test lang from Makefile.in and
  replace it with calls to test_i18n.py

* add argument parsing, usage, configuration parameters, etc. to
  test_i18n.py to make it easier to use and configurable.

* add function to generate a test po and mo file. It also
  writes the files and creates the test directory structure.

* Took the existing validate code and refactored it into validation
  function. It used to just pick one string and test it, now it
  iterates over all strings and all plural forms.

* Validate anonymous Python format substitutions in pot file

* added support for plural forms.

* Add pot po file validation for variable substitution

* In install/po subdir you can now do:
  $ make test
  $ make validate-pot
  $ make validate-po

* The options for running test_i18n.py are:

$ ./test_i18n.py --help
Usage:

test_i18n.py --test_gettext
test_i18n.py --validate-pot [pot_file1, ...]
test_i18n.py --validate-po po_file1 [po_file2, ...]

Options:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -s, --show-strings    show the offending string when an error is detected
  --pedantic            be aggressive when validating
  -v, --verbose         be informative
  --traceback           print the traceback when an exception occurs

  Operational Mode:
    You must select one these modes to run in

    -g, --test-gettext  create the test translation file(s) and exercise them
    -P, --validate-pot  validate pot file(s)
    -p, --validate-po   validate po file(s)

  Run Time Parameters:
    These may be used to modify the run time defaults

    --test-lang=TEST_LANG
                        test po file uses this as it's basename (default=test)
    --lang=LANG         lang used for locale, MUST be a valid lang
                        (default=xh_ZA)
    --domain=DOMAIN     translation domain used during test (default=ipa)
    --locale=LOCALE     locale used during test (default=test_locale)
    --pot-file=POT_FILE
                        default pot file, used when validating pot file or
                        generating test po and mo files (default=ipa.pot)
---
 .gitignore              |    2 +
 freeipa.spec.in         |    1 +
 install/po/Makefile.in  |   18 +-
 install/po/test_i18n.py |  607 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
 4 files changed, 562 insertions(+), 66 deletions(-)

diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 14f9e9b..d20747c 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -46,6 +46,8 @@ install/config.status
 install/install-sh
 install/missing
 install/stamp-h1
+install/po/test.po
+install/po/test_locale/xh_ZA/LC_MESSAGES/ipa.mo
 install/ui/test/results
 ipa-client/COPYING
 ipa-client/ChangeLog
diff --git a/freeipa.spec.in b/freeipa.spec.in
index 2db0f83..2259edf 100644
--- a/freeipa.spec.in
+++ b/freeipa.spec.in
@@ -72,6 +72,7 @@ BuildRequires:  python-kerberos
 BuildRequires:  python-rhsm
 BuildRequires:  pyOpenSSL
 BuildRequires:  pylint
+BuildRequires:  python-polib
 BuildRequires:  libipa_hbac-python
 BuildRequires:  python-memcached
 BuildRequires:  sssd >= 1.8.0
diff --git a/install/po/Makefile.in b/install/po/Makefile.in
index d267bea..a101099 100644
--- a/install/po/Makefile.in
+++ b/install/po/Makefile.in
@@ -127,6 +127,7 @@ update-pot:
 	    echo "$(DOMAIN).pot unmodified" ; \
 	fi || :
 	@rm -f $(DOMAIN).pot.update $(DOMAIN).pot.update.tmp $(DOMAIN).pot.tmp
+	./test_i18n.py --show-strings --validate-pot $(DOMAIN).pot
 
 msg-stats:
 	@pot_count=`$(MSGFMT) --statistics $(DOMAIN).pot 2>&1 | \
@@ -190,17 +191,14 @@ maintainer-clean: distclean
 # msgstr will be set to the empty string (i.e. untranslated). We depend on
 # the msgid being copied to the msgstr.
 
-test_lang:
-	rm -rf test.po test_locale
-	$(MSGINIT) --no-translator -i $(DOMAIN).pot -l en_US -o test.po
-	$(SED) -i -r -e 's/Language: en_US/Language: xh_ZA/' test.po
-	$(SED) -i -r -e 's/^msgstr[ \t]+"(..*)"[ \t]*$$/msgstr "\xe2\x86\x92\1\xe2\x86\x90"/' test.po
-	$(SED) -i -r -e 's/^msgstr[ \t]+"(.*)(\\n)(.)"[ \t]*$$/msgstr "\1\xe2\x86\x90\2"/' test.po
-	$(MKDIR_P) test_locale/xh_ZA/LC_MESSAGES
-	$(MSGFMT) -o test_locale/xh_ZA/LC_MESSAGES/ipa.mo test.po
-
 test: test_lang
-	./test_i18n.py
+	./test_i18n.py --test-gettext
+
+validate-pot:
+	./test_i18n.py --show-strings --validate-pot $(DOMAIN).pot
+
+validate-po:
+	./test_i18n.py --show-strings --validate-po $(po_files)
 
 debug:
 	@echo Python potfiles:
diff --git a/install/po/test_i18n.py b/install/po/test_i18n.py
index 0797dd7..69f8d25 100755
--- a/install/po/test_i18n.py
+++ b/install/po/test_i18n.py
@@ -19,91 +19,586 @@
 # along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 #
 
+import optparse
 import sys
 import gettext
 import locale
 import re
 import os
+import traceback
+import polib
 
-def get_msgid(po_file):
-    'Get the first non-empty msgid from the po file'
-    msgid_re = re.compile(r'^\s*msgid\s+"(.+)"\s*$')
-    f = open(po_file)
-    for line in f.readlines():
-        match = msgid_re.search(line)
-        if match:
-            msgid = match.group(1)
-            f.close()
-            return msgid
-    f.close()
-    raise ValueError('No msgid found in %s' % po_file)
-
-# We test our translations by taking the original untranslated string
-# (e.g. msgid) and prepend a prefix character and then append a suffix
-# character. The test consists of asserting that the first character in the
-# translated string is the prefix, the last character in the translated string
-# is the suffix and the everything between the first and last character exactly
-# matches the original msgid.
-#
-# We use unicode characters not in the ascii character set for the prefix and
-# suffix to enhance the test. To make reading the translated string easier the
-# prefix is the unicode right pointing arrow and the suffix left pointing arrow,
-# thus the translated string looks like the original string enclosed in
-# arrows. In ASCII art the string "foo" would render as:
-# -->foo<--
+'''
+We test our translations by taking the original untranslated string
+(e.g. msgid) and prepend a prefix character and then append a suffix
+character. The test consists of asserting that the first character in the
+translated string is the prefix, the last character in the translated string
+is the suffix and the everything between the first and last character exactly
+matches the original msgid.
+
+We use unicode characters not in the ascii character set for the prefix and
+suffix to enhance the test. To make reading the translated string easier the
+prefix is the unicode right pointing arrow and the suffix left pointing arrow,
+thus the translated string looks like the original string enclosed in
+arrows. In ASCII art the string "foo" would render as:
+-->foo<--
+'''
+
+#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+verbose = False
+print_traceback = False
+pedantic = False
+show_strings = True
 
 # Unicode right pointing arrow
 prefix = u'\u2192'               # utf-8 == '\xe2\x86\x92'
 # Unicode left pointing arrow
 suffix = u'\u2190'               # utf-8 == '\xe2\x86\x90'
 
-def main():
+page_width = 80
+section_seperator = '=' * page_width
+entry_seperator = '-' * page_width
+
+#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+# For efficiency compile these regexps just once
+_substitution_regexps = [re.compile(r'%[srduoxf]\b'),        # e.g. %s
+                         re.compile(r'%\(\w+\)[srduoxf]\b'), # e.g. %(foo)s
+                         re.compile(r'\$\w+'),               # e.g. $foo
+                         re.compile(r'\${\w+}'),             # e.g. ${foo}
+                         re.compile(r'\$\(\w+\)')            # e.g. $(foo)
+                         ]
+# Python style substitution, e.g. %(foo)s
+# where foo is the key and s is the format char
+# group 1: whitespace between % and (
+# group 2: whitespace between ( and key
+# group 3: whitespace between key and )
+# group 4: whitespace between ) and format char
+# group 5: format char
+_python_substitution_regexp = re.compile(r'%(\s*)\((\s*)\w+(\s*)\)(\s*)([srduoxf]\b)?')
+
+# Shell style substitution, e.g. $foo $(foo) ${foo}
+# where foo is the variable
+_shell_substitution_regexp = re.compile(r'\$(\s*)([({]?)(\s*)\w+(\s*)([)}]?)')
+# group 1: whitespace between $ and delimiter
+# group 2: begining delimiter
+# group 3: whitespace between beginning delmiter and variable
+# group 4: whitespace between variable and ending delimiter
+# group 5: ending delimiter
+
+# We do not permit anonymous substitutions in translation strings
+# (e.g. '%s occurred' % error) because they do not provide the
+# necessary context to translators, they would only see
+# '%s occurred'. Instead a keyword substitution should be used
+# (e.g. '%(error)s occurred' % {'error': error_message})
+
+# Python anonymous format substitutions, e.g. %s, %d, %f, etc.
+python_anonymous_substitutions_regexp = re.compile(r'%[srduoxf]\b') # e.g. %s
+
+def validate_substitutions_match(s1, s2, s1_name='string1', s2_name='string2'):
+    '''
+    Validate both s1 and s2 have the same number of substitution strings.
+    A substitution string would be something that looked like this:
+
+    * %(foo)s
+    * $foo
+    * ${foo}
+    * $(foo)
+
+    The substitutions may appear in any order in s1 and s2, however their
+    format must match exactly and the exact same number of each must exist
+    in both s1 and s2.
+
+    A list of error diagnostics is returned explaining how s1 and s2 failed
+    the validation check. If the returned error list is empty then the
+    validation succeeded.
+
+    :param s1:      First string to validate
+    :param s2:      First string to validate
+    :param s1_name: In diagnostic messages the name for s1
+    :param s2_name: In diagnostic messages the name for s2
+    :return:        List of diagnostic error messages, if empty then success
+    '''
+    errors = []
+
+    def get_subs(s):
+        '''
+        Return a dict whoses keys are each unique substitution and whose
+        value is the count of how many times that substitution appeared.
+        '''
+        subs = {}
+        for regexp in _substitution_regexps:
+            for match in regexp.finditer(s):
+                matched = match.group(0)
+                subs[matched] = subs.get(matched, 0) + 1
+        return subs
+
+    # Get the substitutions and their occurance counts
+    subs1 = get_subs(s1)
+    subs2 = get_subs(s2)
+
+    # Form a set for each strings substitutions and
+    # do set subtraction and interesection
+    set1 = set(subs1.keys())
+    set2 = set(subs2.keys())
+
+    missing1 = set2 - set1
+    missing2 = set1 - set2
+    common = set1 & set2
+
+    # Test for substitutions which are absent in either string
+    if missing1:
+        errors.append("The following substitutions are absent in %s: %s" %
+                      (s1_name, ' '.join(missing1)))
+
+    if missing2:
+        errors.append("The following substitutions are absent in %s: %s" %
+                      (s2_name, ' '.join(missing2)))
+
+    if pedantic:
+        # For the substitutions which are shared assure they occur an equal number of times
+        for sub in common:
+            if subs1[sub] != subs2[sub]:
+                errors.append("unequal occurances of '%s', %s has %d occurances, %s has %d occurances" %
+                              (sub, s1_name, subs1[sub], s2_name, subs2[sub]))
+
+    if errors:
+        if show_strings:
+            errors.append('>>> %s <<<' % s1_name)
+            errors.append(s1.rstrip())
+
+            errors.append('>>> %s <<<' % s2_name)
+            errors.append(s2.rstrip())
+    return errors
+
+
+def validate_substitution_syntax(s, s_name='string'):
+    '''
+    If s has one or more substitution variables then validate they
+    are syntactically correct.
+    A substitution string would be something that looked like this:
+
+    * %(foo)s
+    * $foo
+    * ${foo}
+    * $(foo)
+
+    A list of error diagnostics is returned explaining how s1 and s2 failed
+    the validation check. If the returned error list is empty then the
+    validation succeeded.
+
+    :param s:      String to validate
+    :param s_name: In diagnostic messages the name for s
+    :return:       List of diagnostic error messages, if empty then success
+    '''
+    errors = []
+
+    # Look for Python style substitutions, e.g. %(foo)s
+    for match in _python_substitution_regexp.finditer(s):
+        if match.group(1):
+            errors.append("%s has whitespace between %% and key in '%s'" %
+                          (s_name, match.group(0)))
+        if match.group(2) or match.group(3):
+            errors.append("%s has whitespace next to key in '%s'" %
+                          (s_name, match.group(0)))
+        if match.group(4):
+            errors.append("%s has whitespace between key and format character in '%s'" %
+                          (s_name, match.group(0)))
+        if not match.group(5):
+            errors.append("%s has no format character in '%s'" %
+                          (s_name, match.group(0)))
+
+    # Look for shell style substitutions, e.g. $foo $(foo) ${foo}
+    for match in _shell_substitution_regexp.finditer(s):
+        if match.group(1):
+            errors.append("%s has whitespace between $ and variable in '%s'" %
+                          (s_name, match.group(0)))
+        if match.group(3) or (match.group(4) and match.group(5)):
+            errors.append("%s has whitespace next to variable in '%s'" %
+                          (s_name, match.group(0)))
+
+        beg_delimiter = match.group(2)
+        end_delimiter = match.group(5)
+        matched_delimiters = {'': '', '(': ')', '{': '}'}
+        if beg_delimiter is not None or end_delimiter is not None:
+            if matched_delimiters[beg_delimiter] != end_delimiter:
+                errors.append("%s variable delimiters do not match in '%s', begin delimiter='%s' end delimiter='%s'" %
+                              (s_name, match.group(0), beg_delimiter, end_delimiter))
+
+    if errors:
+        if show_strings:
+            errors.append('>>> %s <<<' % s_name)
+            errors.append(s.rstrip())
+
+    return errors
+
+
+def validate_anonymous_substitutions(s, s_name='string'):
+    '''
+    We do not permit anonymous substitutions in translation strings
+    (e.g. '%s occurred' % error) because they do not provide the
+    necessary context to translators, they would only see
+    '%s occurred'. Instead a keyword substitution should be used
+    (e.g. '%(error)s occurred' % {'error': error_message})
+    '''
+    errors = []
+
+    for match in python_anonymous_substitutions_regexp.finditer(s):
+        errors.append("%s has anonymous substitution '%s', use keyword substitution instead" %
+                      (s_name, match.group(0)))
+
+    if errors:
+        if show_strings:
+            errors.append('>>> %s <<<' % s_name)
+            errors.append(s.rstrip())
+
+    return errors
+
+def validate_file(file_path, validation_mode):
+    '''
+    Given a pot or po file scan all it's entries looking for problems
+    with variable substitutions. See the following functions for
+    details on how the validation is performed.
+
+    * validate_substitutions_match()
+    * validate_substitution_syntax()
+    * validate_anonymous_substitutions()
+
+    Returns the number of entries with errors.
+    '''
+
+    error_lines = []
+    n_entries_with_errors = 0
+
+    if not os.path.isfile(file_path):
+        print >>sys.stderr, 'file does not exist "%s"' % (file_path)
+        return 1
+    try:
+        po = polib.pofile(file_path)
+    except Exception, e:
+        print >>sys.stderr, 'Unable to parse file "%s": %s' % (file_path, e)
+        return 1
+
+    for entry in po:
+        entry_errors = []
+        msgid = entry.msgid
+        msgstr = entry.msgstr
+        have_msgid = msgid.strip() != ''
+        have_msgstr = msgstr.strip() != ''
+        if validation_mode == 'pot':
+            if have_msgid:
+                errors = validate_anonymous_substitutions(msgid, 'msgid')
+                entry_errors.extend(errors)
+        if validation_mode == 'po':
+            if have_msgid and have_msgstr:
+                errors = validate_substitutions_match(msgid, msgstr, 'msgid', 'msgstr')
+                entry_errors.extend(errors)
+        if pedantic:
+            if have_msgid:
+                errors = validate_substitution_syntax(msgid, 'msgid')
+                entry_errors.extend(errors)
+            if have_msgstr:
+                errors = validate_substitution_syntax(msgstr, 'msgstr')
+                entry_errors.extend(errors)
+        if entry_errors:
+            error_lines.append(entry_seperator)
+            error_lines.append('locations: %s' % (', '.join(["%s:%d" % (x[0], int(x[1])) for x in entry.occurrences])))
+            error_lines.extend(entry_errors)
+            n_entries_with_errors += 1
+    if n_entries_with_errors:
+        error_lines.insert(0, section_seperator)
+        error_lines.insert(1, "%d validation errors in %s" % (n_entries_with_errors, file_path))
+        print '\n'.join(error_lines)
+
+    return n_entries_with_errors
+
+
+#----------------------------------------------------------------------
+def create_po(pot_file, po_file, mo_file):
+
+    if not os.path.isfile(pot_file):
+        print >>sys.stderr, 'file does not exist "%s"' % (pot_file)
+        return 1
+    try:
+        po = polib.pofile(pot_file)
+    except Exception, e:
+        print >>sys.stderr, 'Unable to parse file "%s": %s' % (pot_file, e)
+        return 1
+
+    # Update the metadata in the po file header
+    # It's case insensitive so search the keys in a case insensitive manner
+    #
+    # We need to update the Plural-Forms otherwise gettext.py will raise the
+    # following error:
+    #
+    # raise ValueError, 'plural forms expression could be dangerous'
+    #
+    # It is demanding the rhs of plural= only contains the identifer 'n'
+
+    for k,v in po.metadata.items():
+        if k.lower() == 'plural-forms':
+            po.metadata[k] = 'nplurals=2; plural=(n != 1)'
+            break
+
+
+    # Iterate over all msgid's and form a the msgstr by prepending
+    # the prefix and appending the suffix
+    for entry in po:
+        if entry.msgid_plural:
+            entry.msgstr_plural = {0: prefix + entry.msgid + suffix,
+                                   1: prefix + entry.msgid_plural + suffix}
+        else:
+            entry.msgstr = prefix + entry.msgid + suffix
+
+    # Write out the po and mo files
+    po.save(po_file)
+    print "Wrote: %s" % (po_file)
+
+    po.save_as_mofile(mo_file)
+    print "Wrote: %s" % (mo_file)
+
+
+#----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+def validate_unicode_edit(msgid, msgstr):
+    # Verify the first character is the test prefix
+    if msgstr[0] != prefix:
+        raise ValueError('First char in translated string "%s" not equal to prefix "%s"' %
+                         (msgstr.encode('utf-8'), prefix.encode('utf-8')))
+
+    # Verify the last character is the test suffix
+    if msgstr[-1] != suffix:
+        raise ValueError('Last char in translated string "%s" not equal to suffix "%s"' %
+                         (msgstr.encode('utf-8'), suffix.encode('utf-8')))
+
+    # Verify everything between the first and last character is the
+    # original untranslated string
+    if msgstr[1:-1] != msgid:
+        raise ValueError('Translated string "%s" minus the first & last character is not equal to msgid "%s"' %
+                         (msgstr.encode('utf-8'), msgid))
 
-    test_file = 'test.po'
+    if verbose:
+        msg = 'Success: message string "%s" maps to translated string "%s"' % (msgid, msgstr)
+        print msg.encode('utf-8')
 
+
+def test_translations(po_file, lang, domain, locale):
     try:
 
-        # The test installs the test message catalog under the xh_ZA (e.g. Zambia Xhosa)
-        # language. It would be nice to use a dummy language not associated with any
-        # real language, but the setlocale function demands the locale be a valid known
-        # locale, Zambia Xhosa is a reasonable choice :)
-        os.environ['LANG'] = 'xh_ZA'
+        # The test installs the test message catalog under the xh_ZA
+        # (e.g. Zambia Xhosa) language by default. It would be nice to
+        # use a dummy language not associated with any real language,
+        # but the setlocale function demands the locale be a valid
+        # known locale, Zambia Xhosa is a reasonable choice :)
+
+        os.environ['LANG'] = lang
+
+        # Create a gettext translation object specifying our domain as
+        # 'ipa' and the locale_dir as 'test_locale' (i.e. where to
+        # look for the message catalog). Then use that translation
+        # object to obtain the translation functions.
+
+        t = gettext.translation(domain, locale)
 
-        # Tell gettext that our domain is 'ipa', that locale_dir is 'test_locale'
-        # (i.e. where to look for the message catalog) and that we want the translations
-        # returned as unicode from the _() function
-        gettext.install('ipa', 'test_locale', unicode=1)
+        # Iterate over the msgid's
+        if not os.path.isfile(po_file):
+            print >>sys.stderr, 'file does not exist "%s"' % (po_file)
+            return 1
+        try:
+            po = polib.pofile(po_file)
+        except Exception, e:
+            print >>sys.stderr, 'Unable to parse file "%s": %s' % (po_file, e)
+            return 1
 
-        # We need a translatable string to test with, read one from the test po file
-        msgid = get_msgid(test_file)
+        n_entries = 0
+        n_translations = 0
+        n_valid = 0
+        n_fail = 0
+        for entry in po:
+            if entry.msgid_plural:
+                msgid = entry.msgid
+                msgid_plural = entry.msgid_plural
+                msgstr = t.ungettext(msgid, msgid_plural, 1)
+                msgstr_plural = t.ungettext(msgid, msgid_plural, 2)
 
-        print "Using message string \"%s\" found in file \"%s\"" % (msgid, test_file)
+                try:
+                    n_translations += 1
+                    validate_unicode_edit(msgid, msgstr)
+                    n_valid += 1
+                except Exception, e:
+                    n_fail += 1
+                    if print_traceback:
+                        traceback.print_exc()
+                    print >> sys.stderr, "ERROR: %s" % e
 
-        # Get the translated version of the msgid string by invoking _()
-        translated = _(msgid)   #pylint: disable=E0602
+                try:
+                    n_translations += 1
+                    validate_unicode_edit(msgid_plural, msgstr_plural)
+                    n_valid += 1
+                except Exception, e:
+                    n_fail += 1
+                    if print_traceback:
+                        traceback.print_exc()
+                    print >> sys.stderr, "ERROR: %s" % e
 
-        # Verify the first character is the test prefix
-        if translated[0] != prefix:
-            raise ValueError("First char in translated string \"%s\" not equal to prefix \"%s\"" % \
-                                 (translated.encode('utf-8'), prefix.encode('utf-8')))
 
-        # Verify the last character is the test suffix
-        if translated[-1] != suffix:
-            raise ValueError("Last char in translated string \"%s\" not equal to suffix \"%s\"" % \
-                                 (translated.encode('utf-8'), suffix.encode('utf-8')))
+            else:
+                msgid = entry.msgid
+                msgstr = t.ugettext(msgid)
 
-        # Verify everything between the first and last character is the
-        # original untranslated string
-        if translated[1:-1] != msgid:
-            raise ValueError("Translated string \"%s\" minus the first & last character is not equal to msgid \"%s\"" % \
-                                 (translated.encode('utf-8'), msgid))
+                try:
+                    n_translations += 1
+                    validate_unicode_edit(msgid, msgstr)
+                    n_valid += 1
+                except Exception, e:
+                    n_fail += 1
+                    if print_traceback:
+                        traceback.print_exc()
+                    print >> sys.stderr, "ERROR: %s" % e
+
+            n_entries += 1
 
-        print "Success: message string \"%s\" maps to translated string \"%s\"" % (msgid, _(msgid).encode('utf-8')) #pylint: disable=E0602
     except Exception, e:
+        if print_traceback:
+            traceback.print_exc()
         print >> sys.stderr, "ERROR: %s" % e
         return 1
 
+    if not n_entries:
+        print >> sys.stderr, "ERROR: no translations found in %s" % (po_filename)
+        return 1
+
+    if n_fail:
+        print >> sys.stderr, "ERROR: %d failures out of %d translations" % (n_fail, n_entries)
+        return 1
+
+    print "%d translations in %d messages successfully tested" % (n_translations, n_entries)
     return 0
 
+#----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+usage ='''
+
+%prog --test_gettext
+%prog --validate-pot [pot_file1, ...]
+%prog --validate-po po_file1 [po_file2, ...]
+'''
+
+def main():
+    global verbose, print_traceback, pedantic, show_strings
+
+    parser = optparse.OptionParser(usage=usage)
+
+    mode_group = optparse.OptionGroup(parser, 'Operational Mode',
+                                      'You must select one these modes to run in')
+
+    mode_group.add_option('-g', '--test-gettext', action='store_const', const='test_gettext', dest='mode',
+                          help='create the test translation file(s) and exercise them')
+    mode_group.add_option('-P', '--validate-pot', action='store_const', const='validate_pot', dest='mode',
+                          help='validate pot file(s)')
+    mode_group.add_option('-p', '--validate-po', action='store_const', const='validate_po', dest='mode',
+                          help='validate po file(s)')
+
+    parser.add_option_group(mode_group)
+    parser.set_defaults(mode='')
+
+    parser.add_option('-s', '--show-strings', action='store_true', dest='show_strings', default=False,
+                      help='show the offending string when an error is detected')
+    parser.add_option('--pedantic', action='store_true', dest='pedantic', default=False,
+                      help='be aggressive when validating')
+    parser.add_option('-v', '--verbose', action='store_true', dest='verbose', default=False,
+                      help='be informative')
+    parser.add_option('--traceback', action='store_true', dest='print_traceback', default=False,
+                      help='print the traceback when an exception occurs')
+
+    param_group = optparse.OptionGroup(parser, 'Run Time Parameters',
+                                       'These may be used to modify the run time defaults')
+
+    param_group.add_option('--test-lang', action='store', dest='test_lang', default='test',
+                           help="test po file uses this as it's basename (default=test)")
+    param_group.add_option('--lang', action='store', dest='lang', default='xh_ZA',
+                           help='lang used for locale, MUST be a valid lang (default=xh_ZA)')
+    param_group.add_option('--domain', action='store', dest='domain', default='ipa',
+                           help='translation domain used during test (default=ipa)')
+    param_group.add_option('--locale', action='store', dest='locale', default='test_locale',
+                           help='locale used during test (default=test_locale)')
+    param_group.add_option('--pot-file', action='store', dest='pot_file', default='ipa.pot',
+                           help='default pot file, used when validating pot file or generating test po and mo files (default=ipa.pot)')
+
+    parser.add_option_group(param_group)
+
+    options, args = parser.parse_args()
+
+    verbose = options.verbose
+    print_traceback = options.print_traceback
+    pedantic = options.pedantic
+    show_strings = options.show_strings
+
+    if not options.mode:
+        print >> sys.stderr, 'ERROR: no mode specified'
+        return 1
+
+    if options.mode == 'validate_pot' or options.mode == 'validate_po':
+        if options.mode == 'validate_pot':
+            files = args
+            if not files:
+                files = [options.pot_file]
+            validation_mode = 'pot'
+        elif options.mode == 'validate_po':
+            files = args
+            if not files:
+                print >> sys.stderr, 'ERROR: no po files specified'
+                return 1
+            validation_mode = 'po'
+        else:
+            print >> sys.stderr, 'ERROR: unknown validation mode "%s"' % (options.mode)
+            return 1
+
+        total_errors = 0
+        for f in files:
+            n_errors = validate_file(f, validation_mode)
+            total_errors += n_errors
+        if total_errors:
+            print section_seperator
+            print "%d errors in %d files" % (total_errors, len(files))
+            return 1
+        else:
+            return 0
+
+    elif options.mode == 'test_gettext':
+        po_file = '%s.po' % options.test_lang
+        pot_file = options.pot_file
+
+        msg_dir = os.path.join(options.locale, options.lang, 'LC_MESSAGES')
+        if not os.path.exists(msg_dir):
+            os.makedirs(msg_dir)
+
+        mo_basename = '%s.mo' % options.domain
+        mo_file = os.path.join(msg_dir, mo_basename)
+
+        create_po(pot_file, po_file, mo_file)
+
+        # The test installs the test message catalog under the xh_ZA
+        # (e.g. Zambia Xhosa) language by default. It would be nice to
+        # use a dummy language not associated with any real language,
+        # but the setlocale function demands the locale be a valid
+        # known locale, Zambia Xhosa is a reasonable choice :)
+
+        lang = options.lang
+
+        # Create a gettext translation object specifying our domain as
+        # 'ipa' and the locale_dir as 'test_locale' (i.e. where to
+        # look for the message catalog). Then use that translation
+        # object to obtain the translation functions.
+
+        domain = options.domain
+        locale = options.locale
+
+        return test_translations(po_file, lang, domain, locale)
+
+    else:
+        print >> sys.stderr, 'ERROR: unknown mode "%s"' % (options.mode)
+        return 1
+
 if __name__ == "__main__":
     sys.exit(main())
-- 
1.7.7.6

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