A couple of thoughts on this:

1) So Aksdal is saying the ‘bell-pear-shaped sitrenk’ (a great name for the 
thing!) is a fusion of a bell cittern and an English guittar. (And he is saying 
the the bell cittern - as used in Norway  - is played with a feather plectrum 
and uses French tablature). This might also suggest that English guittars and 
bell citterns are quite independent traditions (whereas some people –David? – 
think that the guittar is derived from the bell cittern).

It’s a pity that Aksdal makes no mention of tuning or stringing.

There’s a ‘bell-pear-shaped sitrenk’ illustrated in Baines ‘European and 
American musical instruments’ – number 258. No dimensions are given but it’s 
strung with four doubles and two single strings and it’s a deep-bodied 
instrument (with one circular rose and two crescent roses). So maybe it’s 
played fingerstyle and tuned chordally, like guittars from Britain (which 
Aksdal has said, are found in Norway at the time too).

In that case – probably – Norwegians played British guittar music and played 
with the fingers. (The Portuguese played ‘ingleza’ pieces on their guittaras in 
the 1790s). But, of course, some authentic Norwegian music would be a real find.

2) Aksdal says the instrument was used for song accompaniment. In the British 
repertoire there are two kind of song accompaniment –  the vocal line with a 
genuine, separate guittar part or, more often, a setting of the tune for the 
instrument and the voice doubles the melody line. This can be as simple as one 
line of music, played and sung, or quite fancy, as in the Straube song settings.

The idea of playing and singing the same line seems a bit lame to us but it 
certainly was much practised in Britain. (The French ‘cistre’ songs always have 
a separate accompaniment). There’s yet another subgenre of  the zitter, zither 
family – the French epinette, the Appallachian dulcimer, the Hungarian citera 
and the Norwegain langeleik etc  Some of these (e.g the Hungarian one) are 
tuned to a major chord and presumably, when playing songs, the instrument 
doubles the tune. Perhaps there’s a link between the two kinds of zither.

Maybe Bellman played his accompaniments this way - doubling the melody rather 
than a separate chordal accompanimnent?


> Cittern
> The cittern probably originated in the late medieval period as a plucked 
> descendant of the old fidel. Tinctoris (c.1490) credits the Italians for 
> the invention and describes the insturment as having a flat body, frets 
> and four strings made from brass or steel and plucked with a plectrum 
> (Marcuse 1964:103). Usually the insturment is mentioned under it's 
> French name citole, especially popular among 14th C troubadours. During 
> this time the citole goes through a transformation and appears during 
> the 16th C in its classical form. The plectrum is then replaced with 
> fingerpicking and the first compositions for the cittern appears during 
> the middle of the century, notated in luite tablature. The string, who 
> like on the lute are configured i courses, increases in number, and 
> during the 17th C we find everything from 4 to 12 course citterns. Until 
> the beginning of the 18th C there was a steady production of both solo 
> and ensemble music for the cittern, somthing that reflects its 
> acceptance withing art music. During the 17th C the cittern had also 
> foudn its way into the barbershop, for the enjoyment of the customers 
> who still didn't have nespapers or magazines to pass the waiting time. 
> Trichet tells that the instrument in France also was played by the 
> barbers themselves to entertain the waiting customers (Marceuse 1964:104).
>     In Hamburg around 1700 it appeared a small cittern type that became 
> very popular in Northern Germany and Scandinavia. This bell shaped 
> cittern was usually called sitrenk and had 5 or 6 courses. Many of them 
> had holes drilld in the neck for attaching a capo. This made the 
> instrument popular despite the guitar's increased popularity.
>     The Italian cittern was small, with a deeper body and 6 courses, 
> consisting of 4 double and 2 single metal strings. Around 1750 it was 
> introduced to England where it flourished. The instrument was especially 
> popular among ladies of the elevated circles. In 1783 Chr. Clauss in 
> London invented a key mechanism to spare the cittern playing ladies' 
> fingers. Another attempt to facilitate the palying, was the introduction 
> of a tuning mechanism that with a small tuning key tightened or 
> slackened the strings. Around 1800 the insturment is however on return. 
> Not even the introduction of open bass strings, inspired by the 
> archlutes, managed to keep the cittern from being replaced by the 
> guitar. Only in folk music did it survive, and it is still used in 
> Germany and on the Iberian peninsular.
> [Translator's comments: I suppose there's no need for me to say much on 
> this list about the many inexactnesses of this general description of 
> the cittern's history ;-) I'm sure Aksdal is on much safer ground when 
> it comes to the NOrwegian references in the rest of the article]
>   In Norway the cittern is first mentioned in 1620. During a pary at 
> Bryggen in Bergen music was made "mit sitzteren vund Lutten" (Wiberg 
> 1932:89). In 1662 we hear of an instrument called "Zitter" or "Citter" 
> used in church music (Bang 1662, VIII, 4). Apparently this is a cittern. 
> This instrument has earlier been referred to as cither, cithar and 
> cithre. To mend the name confusion Curt Sachs in 1922 proposed to 
> christen the instrument cister (Rugstad 1978:112).
>     Cithar is the name the cittern appear under the next time it's 
> mentioned in the sources, listed in Holden by Ulefoss among the deceased 
> priest Gerhard Meidel's instruments in 1707 (Rugestad 1979:12). When 
> Christian VI visited Kongsberg June 27th 1733 a parade was arranged, 
> according to the travelling journals. "In front of this parade the 
> Musicians walked with their Hautbois and and Waldhorn dressed in the 
> Berg fashion, and also the Berg-Sangerne with their Violiner, Citer and 
> Træ-angler" (Kierulf 1745:32). In Germany the triangle was one of the 
> miners' instruments. It's worth noticing thet the cittern often were 
> called Bergzither in Germany, but the evience is not substantial enough 
> to conclude there is any connection.
> [Translator's comment: In both Norwegian and German the word "Berg" 
> means "mountain" but has also been used in reference to miners (men who 
> work inside the "berg"). Kongsberg is a Norwegian town that grew around 
> the royal Norwegian silver mines.]
>   During the loast half of the 18th C the cittern had its reneaissance 
> in England and Germany and the impulses soon reached Scandinavia as 
> well. In 1782, town musician Berg in Kristiansand writes:
> [Translator's comment: Sorry, but the facsimile of a facsimile here is 
> too hard to read - I'll see if I can find a copy of the book so that I 
> can translate the last part]
> Berg continues: "The Cittern ... is a perfect Instrument, suitable for 
> the enjoyment of the fair sex, expecially when they can accompany 
> themselves simlarly musically with singing" (Berg 1782: 32-38). The 
> cittern became very popular in Norway, both as a solo isntrument and for 
> song accompaniment. It was especially widespread in the towns as an 
> amateur instrument, often played by women. Special "cittern songs" 
> appeared from the use of this instrument (Rugstad 1978:119). In 1775 
> Johan Nordahl Brun wrote Bergen's town song, starting with "I took my 
> new tuned cittern in my hands..." The melody is apparently a French 
> menuet Brun had learned because Holberg had used it in "Jean de France." 
> Interesting is also the poet Edvard Storm's "Note book." The first part 
> of the book is an elementary introduction in playing and tuning the 
> sister, with 15 practice tunes notated in French tablature. The book was 
> probably written during his stay in Copenhagem. For more information, se 
> Rugstadss article in SNM 4, 1978.
> [Translator's comments: The tune to Bergen's town song is by Jean 
> Baptiste Lully.]
>    Berg writes in 1782: "Citterns are of several Models and Sizes, but 
> with the right Playing method becomes almost One on them all." (Berg 
> 1782:32). In Sweden the English cittern was introduced towards the end 
> of the 1760s, and soon won great popularity (Nordlind 1941:143). It 
> probably arrived just as early in Norway. I Norwegian museums there are 
> about 10 English citterns from the second half of the 18th Century, the 
> oldest one dated 1757. [Translator's comment: is this the English 
> guittar?] Even so it's the northern German sitrenk [Translator's 
> comment: the Hamburger Citrinchen - "bell cittern") that gaid most 
> importance in Norway. It is first mentioned by Berlin in 1744: "With the 
> Word Harpe, is included the so-called David-Harper, Spis-Harper, 
> Citrincver, Citharer..." (Berlin 1744:94). Wilse also mentions it in his 
> Spydeberg description: "Langeleik worked better because the players 
> could sing along, as with the Citrinque..." (Wilse 1779:432). Berg 
> writes in 1782 that it belongs "Among the Citar Family": "Zitrinchen and 
> Humlen is played with a sharpened Pen Feather." (Berg 1782:32). I 
> contrast to the English cittern, that was imported, we got in Norway 
> several instrument makers who built sitrenks. The most significant of 
> these was Amund Hansen. He was born in Vinger in 1734, but later moved 
> to Halden were he was "Oboist at the Sydenfieldske regiment" (Parmer 
> 1962:16). It is uncertain when Amund Hansen began building sitrenks. It 
> has been said that Bellmann purcahsed a Hansen-sitrenk during his stay 
> on Halden in 1763, but this has not been confirmed and shouldn't been 
> given much significance. The oldest Hansen-sitrenk is fully 16 years 
> younger, that is dated 1779, and has th characteristic bell shape of the 
> Hamburgen sitrenk. This is however the only preserved instrument with 
> this shape. It seems Hansen during the 1780s started building pear 
> shaped sitrenks. There are 5 such preserved. Most of Amund Hansen's 
> instruments are made in socalled bell-pear-shape, a combination of the 
> two shapes. This shape appears in 1787 and dominates completely until 
> 1806, the dating of his youngest known instrument. Amund Hansen who died 
> in 1812 probably had an enormous production. Despite the great town fire 
> in Halden 1826, I have been able to register no less than 30 
> instruments. He also probably did some export (Parmer 162:32 f).
>    Another Norwegian instrument maker was Andreas Lunde in Bragenes. 
>  From his hand one cello and two sitrenks are preserved, dated 1804, 
> 1795 and 1802 respectively. The sitrenks are very similar to Amund 
> Hansen's bell-pear-shaped instruments. There is also a third sitrenk 
> that can possible be credited Andreas Lunde. The instrument, who is 
> located in Musikmuseet, Stockholm, is signed, but unfortunately the 
> signature is almost unreadable. Paremr thinks it says "Andreas Gundersen 
> .. 1792" (Parmer 1962:26 f) I have studied the signature myself and 
> believe it says: "Andreas Lunde ... 1792". The instrument also shows 
> much similarity in shape to Lunde's 1802-sitrenk, and both these are 
> equpped with English tuning mechanism. [t.c.: Preston tuners]
>    In Bergen also Anders R. Kleive built bell-pear-shaped sitrenks with 
> Egnlish tuning mechanism. 4th Nov 1790 "Anders Ragnelsen Kleive, 
> Sundfjord, Violin Maker" aquired citizenship in the town (Bergen 
> Borgerbog 1917 - 23:145). Three years later he advertises sale of violin 
> strings in the newspaper, and clearly calls himself "violin maker" 
> (Bjørndal 1952:84). According to Parmer there is a sitrenk by him in 
> Berlin (Parmer 1962:26). In Norway two Kleive-sitrenks are preserved, 
> both from 1798.
>    The last know cittern maker in Norway is Berner Hansen from 
> Haugesten. From his hand one instrument dated 1787 is preserved. Fett 
> also counts no. 33 in his catalogue as being made by Hansen (Fett 
> 1904:38). The instruments are pear shaped and have English tuners. 
> Parmer interprets the signature as "Berner Hansen, Hangensten" and 
> counts the sitrenk as Swedish (Parmer 1927:27 f).
>    All indications say we had a significant cittern tradition in Norway 
> during the late 1700s. Amund Hansen was the most important instrument 
> maker and built his first instruments based on the Hamburger bell 
> cittern. Gradually he developed his own form, the pear-shaped sitrenk. 
> During the 1780s he combined the two forms into the chracteristic 
> bell-pear-shape. This form he kept for the rest of his time and built a 
> huge number of instruments. Around 1790 other Norwegian instrument 
> makers began copying the bel-pear shape, but never reached the quality 
> og Hansen's sitrenks.
> To get on or off this list see list information at
> http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~wbc/lute-admin/index.html

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