Largely correct. Interleaf TPS predated FrameMaker by about 5 years. Until 
about 1990, both it and FrameMaker only ran on workstations and minicomputers 
(SUN SPARCstations, DEC PDPs, etc.) so the Interleaf licensing model was 
actually pretty familiar to (if not popular with) customers. Interleaf was also 
a structured authoring tool years before structured information (e.g., SGML) 
became an accepted concept, so I'd have to say that it was the real pioneer. 
But the combination of unpopular licensing and unfamiliar document model 
definitely gave FrameMaker a leg up when they got started.

Another competitor started the same year as Frame, namely Ventura Publisher, 
who had the weight of Xerox behind them (this may or may not have been a good 
thing). Publisher had the advantage of being able to directly accept content 
created in a variety of other applications, such as MS Word, Wordstar, and 
WordPerfect, but had the disadvantage of not being a useable self-contained 
document authoring environment like FrameMaker.

And there was also LaTeX for the hard core who didn't believe in WYSIWYG (or 

When the Windows version of FrameMaker came along in 1991, and FrameBuilder 
(the SGML version) in 1992, there were a whole new set of competitors, 
including startup Arbortext in the SGML arena. 


> Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2014 19:22:42 +0100
> To:;;; 
> From:
> Subject: RE: What free Windows text editor should I use to look at MIF files?
> At 10:11 -0400 6/10/14, Fred Ridder wrote:
> >Sorry, Craig, but there's nothing to suggest that MIF has any basis in SGML, 
> >either.
> Just goes to show how pioneering the original product was. Afair, its only 
> competitor was Interleaf, which required one 'administrator' per six or so 
> seats.
> -- 
> Steve [reliving bitter memories from 1993-4]

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