Storms wrote: ”Once D reaches the site, fusion starts immediately but with release of mass-energy that is much faster than any chemical or diffusion process. In other words, the fusion process is controlled by several independent processes having their own rates. This adds complexity that no theory has yet acknowledged.”
I would note that it is common in solid state matter that isomeric nuclear states occur and have been observed to change in very fast reactions giving up metastable potential energy (In think Storms would say mass-energy) to a location significantly distance from the original isomeric nucleon. The energy is EM radiation—gamma radiation so called because of its source being a nuclear reaction, but not because of its energy. Such reactions are engineered to happen in nuclear magnetic resonance machines or MRI imaging devices in the medical jargon. Engineered nuclear reactions have also been engineered that excite various nucleons to metastable isomeric states that then react to give up greater “mass energy” (I call it potential energy) with actual changes in nucleon constituents—protons, muons, neutrons Etc. Such a device was offered as an option for radioactive nuclear waste remediation in the late 1970’s in DOE’s defense waste management EIS. It was not picked for various stated reasons, one of which was the lack of available EM laser devices of sufficient power and frequency control to stimulate radioactive target nucleons shielded by the electronic structure associated with the targets. The main objective of the remediation was to change the spin state of the target nucleons—their dipole and/or quadrupole magnetic moment—to a less stable (higher kinetic energy) which after stimulation would decay to a stable or at least more stable nucleon. Reactions that produce muons may work very well to actually cause the fast fusion reaction Storms suggests happens. The theory is well established. And I would argue that muon diffusion theory (similar to neutron diffusion theory commonly used to understand fission reactions and to engineer their rate control) is available to understand a LENR, involving the fusion Storms refers to. However, IMHO diffusion theory may not be necessary for understanding LENR in nano size particles with few if any linear defects. (We need some good --nano scale--- examination of the LENR- active nano-particle fuels to see if linear defects are present in sufficient quantities to support observed reported reaction rates.) Surface absorption of H2 with its characteristic “slow rate“ may be more important than the diffusion of protons to the interior of a nano particle, particularly if the LENR reaction happens on or near the particle surface. Also, it may be that the desorption of H is equally important as the nano fuel particle heats up to effect LENR control by what might be described as a negative temperature coefficient of power. Such negative temperature coefficients are a key control phenomena in light water fission reactors. (Increased temperatures of fission reactors reduce the availability of the population neutrons of the correct resonant energy (wave length) to react with fissile nucleons.) Bob Cook From: Andrew Meulenberg<mailto:mules...@gmail.com> Sent: Sunday, February 25, 2018 2:14 AM To: Brian Ahern<mailto:ahern_br...@msn.com> Cc: Edmund Storms<mailto:stor...@ix.netcom.com>; c...@googlegroups.com<mailto:c...@googlegroups.com>; VORTEX<mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org>; Axil Axil<mailto:janap...@gmail.com>; Jean-Luc Paillet<mailto:jean-luc.pail...@club-internet.fr> Subject: Re: CMNS: Re: [Vo]:Metallic hydrogen does not exist Brian, I would rewrite your statement to read " The undistorted molecular orbitals of h2 and h liquid/solid cannot support metallic characteristics." Nevertheless, if you look at the change and spread in atomic and molecular orbital parameters as a function of lattice spacing (e.g., in Kittel's "Solid State Physics, at least in the earlier editions), you can see the basis for my modification to your statement. Recognition of the fact of orbital modification in a generic lattice certainly opens the way to seek specific changes in specific environments. Molecular orbitals could be considered as metallic extensions of atomic orbitals. Combining multiple H atoms or H2 molecules in a common potential well should certainly provide the opportunity to form multi-atom H molecules, which would be metallic in nature. Andrew _ _ _ _ On Sat, Feb 24, 2018 at 2:46 PM, Brian Ahern <ahern_br...@msn.com<mailto:ahern_br...@msn.com>> wrote: The molecular orbitals of h2 and h liquid/solid do not support metallic characteristics. Sent from my iPhone On Feb 24, 2018, at 10:27 AM, Edmund Storms <stor...@ix.netcom.com<mailto:stor...@ix.netcom.com>> wrote: Hi Andrew, Finally we are describing the same process although in slightly different ways. We agree, a linear structure is required that, thanks to a unique resonance process, can gradually dissipate the fusion energy. Your are in a better position than I am to describe the quantum characteristics of this process. This basic idea does not come from any theory but only from how the process is observed to behave. The behavior requires a process that can gradually release the mass-energy in order to avoid the energetic radiation normally produced by all other nuclear reactions. As I have proposed, this reaction can be best described as slow fusion in contrast to fast fusion normally observed. The challenge is to find a mechanism that allows slow release to take place. Although the release of mass-energy is called slow, the fusion process would be fast by chemical standards and independent of temperature. Therefore, the observed amount of power production would require a slow process that is influenced by temperature, as is known to be the case. I suggest the rate of power production is determined by how fast D can diffuse to the sites where fusion can take place. Once D reaches the site, fusion starts immediately but with release of mass-energy that is much faster than any chemical or diffusion process. In other words, the fusion process is controlled by several independent processes having their own rates. This adds complexity that no theory has yet acknowledged. I look forwarded to exploring these ideas with you. Ed On Feb 24, 2018, at 4:13 AM, Andrew Meulenberg wrote: If we define metals as materials with electrons that are bound to a lattice, but not to an individual atoms, then there is another (proposed) option for producing metallic H (at least on the sub-lattice level). K.P. Sinha, Ed Storms, and I have all proposed linear defects as a potential source for LENR. A. Meulenberg, “Pictorial description for LENR in linear defects of a lattice,” ICCF-18, 18th Int. Conf. on Cond. Matter Nuclear Science, Columbia, Missouri, 25/07/2013, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15 (2015), 117-124 If H atoms are inserted into linear defects of a lattice, the 'random' motion of the H2 molecular electrons is constrained. This lateral constraint of the electron motion means that, instead of massive pressures needed to bring H nuclei close enough together to lower the barrier between atoms, the progressive alignment and increasing overlap of the linearized electrons will do the same thing at room temperature. Progressive loading of H into the lattice defect, may produce a phase change in the H sub-lattice, if conditions are right. The proposed conditions are that the lattice structure of the linear defect, while strong enough to compress the lateral motion of the H electrons, does not strongly impose the lattice spacing onto the sub-lattice. The ability of the sub-lattice to alter/reduce its periodic structure means that at some point in the loading process the aligned-H2 molecular structure changes to that of H(n) and thus the local electrons are now bound to the larger molecule, not just to the pairs. If this alignment happens, and if the sub-lattice spacing can shrink, then a feedback mechanism of the electron-reduced Coulomb barrier between protons becomes dominant and cold fusion is initiated. A question of the process is the nature of the Pauli exclusion principle in this formation of H(n). Spin pairing, both between the individual electrons and between pairs, changes the fermi repulsion to bosonic attraction of electron pairs. It is likely that the pairing is spatially (and temporally?) periodic and this periodicity will introduce resonances between the lattice (fixed) and sub-lattice (variable) spacing. These resonances, which depend on lattice, nature of defect, temperature, and loading, could be the critical feature of amplitude in variations of H(n) nuclear spacing and of rates of cold fusion. Andrew M.