BTW – here are some numbers suggesting why there was no radiation signature 
from the Pons cathode when it was producing excess heat from cold fusion.

A. Mass of palladium-105     104.905 MeV
B. Mass of deuteron                   2.014 MeV
C. Mass of silver-107              106.905 MeV

Excess mass of fusion of A and B   14 keV which is really cold compared to the 
heat of the fusion of B+B (which would be three orders of magnitude higher)

That excess energy from A+B is indeed a low yield – and would not have 
noticeable radiation but is thousands of times greater than chemical.

 There is no adequate way to explain away the 24 MeV gamma other than a second 

As for the problem (miracle) of overcoming a higher (apparent) Coulomb 
repulsion in such a putative fusion reaction involving a heavy nucleus - where 
the target is way more highly charged (compared to D+D) this too can be 
explained. As the deuteron approaches the positively charged target nucleus, 
the Pd-105 isotope,  the D nucleus experiences a charge polarization such that 
the "proton-end" faces away from the target and is shielded while the 
"neutron-end" faces towards the target. This charge polarization is amplified 
by the nuclear magnetic properties of the two nuclei producing magnetic 
polarization and attraction. In contrast with D+D you would see nuclear 
magnetic repulsion instead of attraction. 

There could be spin coupling as well. At any rate, by the standard of 
“conservation of miracles” A+B is the clear winner.


As a point of historical  reference, a cursory search was done wrt the isotope 
Pd-105 and its relevance to cold fusion, which turns up many hits including a 
very old and very provocative detail (patent application) – which only now is 
coming to light via the Biberian disclosure. AFAIK this information never made 
it to the newsgroups back then.

The information goes all the way back to early 1990 in a German patent 
application submitted by Hora, Miley and others. This filing was on the way 
within a few months of the P&F announcement ! 

This early filing was apparently unpublished for many years and therefore  is 
new to many of us, “Cold fusion device for energy generation - with metal 
layers forming interfaces “ DE4027784A1    from early 1990

One intriguing detail here is that Hora and Miley most likely already knew that 
Pd-105 was or could be the active isotope in cold fusion, at least from the 
text. This could have been merely a strong suspicion - based on the isotope’s  
cross section for neutrons or its high spin… or on little known government 
research that the editor of Fusion Technology would have access to (i.e. the 
American Nuclear Society's journal Fusion Science and Technology which was the 
premier journal at that time, edited by Miley)… not to mention Hora’s top level 

One implication of this change in perspective is that the main fusion reaction 
of deuterium (D+D) to helium could be rare and possibly a red herring in the 
big picture, since  the main provable reaction from this sample  is instead the 
fusion of deuterium and 105Pd into silver - 107Ag. Many observers including 
Brian Ahern remain highly critical of the helium “evidence” or lack thereof as 
in Krivit’s controversial articles.

Now, instead of having to deal with a missing 24 MeV gamma, and/or helium at 
less than natural background – with the evidence of silver turning up, there is 
only the missing beta decay or a substitute secondary reaction - but actually 
that is not nearly the problem as the missing gamma. Secondary reactions are 
not demanded, as is the energetic missing gamma.

Bottom line: If this information on the transmutation of palladium into silver 
from Biberian had been known earlier especially had it been known in 1990, it 
could have changed things. This causes some suspicion that there are hidden 
reasons why the German patent application was not published.


There is a most interesting paper by Biberian on page 10 which begins with this 
background info:

“In 2001, Stanley Pons gave me a palladium cathode that had produced a lot of 
excess heat. The electrode was 10cm long and 2mm in diameter. It was pure 
palladium and was used in an ICARUS 9 calorimeter. The electrode stayed in my 
drawer for years, until I found a laboratory that could do dynamic SIMS 
(Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy). The equipment was a Cameca 4f machine that 
can detect masses of elements with high sensitivity.”

The curious thing is that active areas of the cathode labeled as “hot spots” 
contained silver isotopes and furthermore, the silver must have transmuted from 
palladium over the course of the gainful runs since the cathode was pure 
palladium before “lots of excess heat” was seen. 

Most of the transmuted silver was the isotope 107 by a very large margin. The 
ratio between Ag-107/Ag-109 was close to 10, whereas in natural silver this 
ratio is 1.06. 

This could mean with fairly high certainty that the single isotope of 
palladium, 105Pd (which is over 22 percent of natural palladium) absorbed or 
fused with deuterons to become 107Ag but without subsequent beta decay. 

Therefore if we assume for the moment that 105Pd is the active isotope of cold 
fusion (there are other possible conclusions but let’s start with this one) 
then several things stand out. 

First, this is a high spin isotope. Second it has a nuclear magnetic moment. In 
fact, this isotope is the ONLY palladium isotope to have a nuclear magnetic 
moment and the only high spin isotope and the Larmor frequency seems to be 
similar to D. Thus the excess heat and the fusion could have been a product of 
spin coupling without subsequent beta decay (so no x-ray signature or residual 
radioactivity would be seen). 

This is interesting information which - had it come out in 2001 could have made 
a difference in the way the field matured.

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