… A di-deuterino molecule could contribute 1 D to the reaction, with the other absorbing the reaction energy as kinetic energy. Deuterons are about 4000 more massive than electrons, so one might expect very little of no bremsstrahlung. Most of the kinetic energy would be lost to ionization. Granted some of the removed electrons would be inner shell, but this only results in at most a 21 keV x-ray. BTW2 Are we sure that the original experiment that produced the Ag was run with D2? Hi Robin, I am pretty sure it was D2 … but as you say, the precursor to any nuclear reaction of this type could be a first stage densification reaction - whether it be Millsean or Holmlidean or otherwise… such as the binuclear atom being promoted by Accomazzi. A binuclear atom with two close electrons seems like it would be an improvement over the Mills di-deuterino in that the 2nd or non-reacting half of the pair gets to be closer in to the Pd nucleus and presumably could carry away more of the excess energy… If cold fusion is a two step process, that detail would help explain the problem of reproducibility and heat-after-death and a few other things. The remarkable thing about Biberian’s finding is that it may represent the most solid evidence to be presented in 29 years for an identifiable nuclear pathway, but nobody really wants to deal with that… since the expectation of helium is so entrenched.