On 10/30/2012 5:15 PM, meekerdb wrote:
On 10/30/2012 1:53 PM, Stephen P. King wrote:
What is it that distinguishes between tokens and propositions?
Tokens are the physical elements (e.g. letters, words, sounds) that
are used to represent a proposition in a particular language.
What determines the map between the letters, words, sounds and the
content of propositions?
The proposition is the abstracted meaning which is independent of
Does this independence do so far as to disallow for an arbitrary
physical entity to know of it? Independence of abstractions from
particular individuals is not independence from all.
So "Zwei est ein und ein." are tokens expressing the same
proposition as "Two equals one plus one." which is that 2=1+1.
That is true only because multiple persons came to believe that it
is true and acted to cause it to be true. Remove one person from the
multiplicity and the meaning still is there. Remove all of them and the
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