Memang betul apa yang Herman katakan. Saya tahu teori ini dari bukunya pak
Koesoema, emang waktu sekolah dulu, dan beberapa
tambahan reference setelah di perminyakan. Tapi ya itu tadi, cuman saya
endapan di otak sebagai salah satu reference saja, dan tidak
mencoba memahami lebih lanjut, karena memang tidak populer di dunia
perminyakan Indonesia. Dari apa yang tertulis di bawah,
kelihatannya kita harus menengok lagi dan memahami lebih banyak tentang
teori abiogenic ini. Dan kalau memang benar terbukti,
akan membantu Indonesia utk tidak menjadi net oil exporter.

gimana khabar Gemusut discovery vs. Kakap discovery ???

Teguh P.

                      "Darman, Herman H                                                
                      BSP-TSX/4"               To:       <[EMAIL PROTECTED]>           
                      <[EMAIL PROTECTED]        cc:                                    
            >                 Subject:  RE: [iagi-net-l] The Origin 
of Petroleum                                      
                      06/11/2004 09:52                                                 
                      Please respond to                                                


Waktu saya belajar di ABerdeen, pelajaran geochemistry menggali teori-teori
ini. Teori abiogenic dipakai umum di Rusia dan sebagian North Sea. Tapi
memang di Indonesia belum banyak dipakai.



-----Original Message-----
Sent: 11 June 2004 09:31
Subject: [iagi-net-l] The Origin of Petroleum

Saya rasa teman-teman ada yang sudah banyak yang baca tulisan dibawah di
Oilgas-proof mailing list oleh salah seorang senior geologist di Indonesia,
yaitu pak Rudy Phoa. Salah satu dari "Thingking Out of the Box",menurut
Siapa tahu ada teman-teman yang belum baca. Sangat Menarik dan boleh
sambil minum kopi di depan atau di taman belakang rumah selama weekend.

Perth, June 2004: Rudy S.K. PHOA

Is the origin of petroleum âBiogenicâ and/or âAbiogenicâ ?

The Issue:
Being a member of the Western School, most Geochemists and Petroleum
Geologists in Indonesia (including me) remain convinced that crude oil and
natural gas have organic origins. Are we correct with our view? Have we
ignored or neglected something? What is the impact if we have left out the
abiotic theory and what should we do?

The debate about the biogenic or abiotic origin of the hydrocarbons has
heavily intensified in recent years. In 2003, the AAPG Research Committee
took an informal limited âHedberg Conferenceâ (80 to 100 participants).
The debate keeps getting hotter. On June 9 â 12, 2004, a formal Hedberg
AAPG Conference will be held at the Institute of Petroleum in London with
the topic âOrigin of Petroleum â Biogenic and/or Abiogenic and its
significance in Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production. The Organizers are
Brian Abbott of the Institute, Michel T. Halbouty, Peter Odell of Erasmus
University, Barry Katz of Chevron Texaco and E.A. Mancini of Alabama
University.  Day 1 will deal with the origin questions and case studies,
day 2 on the exploration strategies using both models and day 3 with the
migration issues under both scenarios. This is essentially the big issue
between the Western and the Eastern (Russian) school of thoughts. In the
past, we hardly give a room to see what the Russian have on their table.
Language problems? No, majority of the Russian Papers are translated in

Those in favor of the Biogenic Origin have advanced the following
1.    Petroleum contains groups of molecules, which are clearly identified
breakdown products of organic molecules that occur in plants. Michael
Lewan, the famous research Geochemist for the USGS in Denver feels that
his research has done a very good job of stimulating production of
Petroleum in the Lab. The Lab and fieldwork have put together a very good

J.F. Kenney et al of Gas Resources Corp. in Houston (2002) concluded that
there is no real debate about the origin of petroleum. Natural petroleum
does NOT evolve from biological material.

2.    Petroleum frequently shows rotation of the plane of polarization.
is normally a characteristic of biological matter and absent in fluid of
non- biological origin.
This optical activity is sometimes totally absent and it would be
difficult to suppose that thorough destruction of the biological molecules
had occurred.

3.    Some Petroleum shows a clear preference for molecule with an odd
of carbon atoms over those with an even number. Such are from breakdown of
a class of molecules that are common in biological substances.

As for the optical activity, the odd and even carbon number are sometimes
totally absent. Thomas Gold (USGS, 1993) theorizes that biology is not a
nuclear reactor. It canât make carbon-13 or â12.

4.    Petroleum is mostly found in sedimentary deposits.
Oil and Gas Exploration is focused in sedimentary basins.

Debate about the origin of Petroleum:
Dimitri Mendeleev (1877): Petroleum was born in the depths of the Earth
and it is only there that we seek its origin. Mendeleev is the Great
Russian Father of Chemistry that created the âPeriodic Systemâ that every
student in this world learn in high school during the beginning of his
Chemistry lessons. It is not fair just to ignore the thought of this great
man, just because we come from a different school?

Kudryavtsev (1959), the most prominent and strongest advocate of the
abionic theory argued that no petroleum resembling the chemical
composition of natural crudes has ever been made from genuine plant
material in the laboratory and in conditions resembling those in nature.
This statement has since become known as âKudryavtsevâs Ruleâ and many
examples have been noted in different parts of the world.

Most notable voices outside Russia was Sir Robert Robinson, President of
the Royal Society (1963, 1966): He studied the chemical make-up of natural
Petroleum in great detail and concluded that they were mostly far too
hydrogen-rich to be a likely product of the decay of plant debris. It
cannot be emphasized that Petroleum does not present the composition
picture expected from modified biogenic products.

H.D. Hedberg (ex. President of the Geological Society of America, 1964)
indicates that it is remarkable that in spite of its widespread
occurrences, its great economic importance and the immense amount of the
research devoted to it, there perhaps still remain more uncertainties
concerning the origin of petroleum that of any other commonly occurring
natural substance.

Methane is found in great ocean rifts in the absence of any substantial
sediments; in fissures in igneous and metamorphic rocks, even at great
depths; in active volcanic regions (flames have been seen during the
eruption of Merapi in 1932. Kravtsov et. al. (1975) reveals that the
amount of methane emitted over the time-span of a volcanic activity could
far exceed the reserve of a gas field; and massive amount of methane
hydrates (methane-water ice combination) in permanent frozen ocean
deposits, where adequate quantity of biological source material is

Based on the isotopic features, the general area of petroleum origin could
be identified. Crude oil from the Middle East can be distinguished from
South American or any crude from somewhere else.

From the hydrocarbon content in meteorites, Sokoloff (1889) discussed the
âCosmic Origin of Bituminaâ.  Now we know that major planets and their
satellites like Jupiter, Saturn and its satellite Titan, Uranus and
Neptune and its satellite Triton have large amount of methane and other
hydrocarbon gasses in their atmospheres. The surface of the Comet Halley
core, recently observed by spacecraft, is most reasonably interpreted as
one of tar, complex polycyclic hydrocarbon molecules (Clemett, 1993).

This discussion could be continued and at the end, this paper would be too
long to be distributed by the Oilgasprof-group and becomes a publication.

What is the impact?
An Explorationist might dismiss the entire conversation, except for these
     If the origin of petroleum is abiotic, hydrocarbon will be abundant
no possibility of constrained supply. Alternative energy would be history.
     Petroleum generated by abionic processes could occur anywhere.
Exploration is NOT limited to sedimentary basins and depths.
     This might change our status back to a âNet Oil Exporterâ.

What should we do?
     We have the most volcanoes in the world. Major part of Indonesia is
still virgin, as exploration for oil is focused in sedimentary basins.
     If not yet initiated, at least we should seek the approval and
from BPMigas, Migas and Pertamina to form a group to follow up the abiotic
theory. I think that Prof. Dr. Soejono Martodjojo, my good old friend and
an excellent explorationist that I always respect and admire, could be
nominated as one of the potential candidate to lead this group.
     It might be too late to attend the convention. I would suggest
contacting Michel Halbouty, who is an Indonesian friend or Barry Katz of
Chevron Texaco for the available papers and handouts of the upcoming
convention. Contact USGS and AAPG (Explorer) for the available published
past reports.

     J.F. Kenny et. al.
1.    Peak Oil, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 2002
2.    Fossil Fuel without Fossils, Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences (USA), 2002.
     Dimitri Mendeleev: Lâorigine du petrol. Revue Scientifique, 2e Ser.
VIII, 1877
     N.A. Kudryavtsev: Geological proof of the deep origin of Petroleum,
Issledovatel Geologoraz Vedoch. Inst. No.132, 1959
     Robert Robinson:
1.    Duplex origin of Petroleum, Nature 199. 1963
2.    The origins of Petroleum, Nature 212. 1966
     A.I. Kravtsov et al:
1.    Inorganic generation of oil and criteria for exploration for oil and
gas, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1975
2.    Distribution of gas-oil-bitumen shows in the Yakutian diamond
International Geological Review 23, 1981.
3.    Gases and bitumens in rocks of the Udachnaya pipe, Earth Sci. Sect.
228, 1976.
     W. Sokoloff: Kosmisher Ursprung der Bitumina. Bull. Soc. Imp. Natural
Moscau, 1889
     S.J. Clemet et. al.: Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
interplanetary dust particles. Lunar Planetary Science XXIV, 1993.
     Thomas Gold; The Origin of Methane (and Oil) in the Crust of the
 USGS Professional Paper 1570, 1993.

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