Here are a few helpful links for the home proto board maker.. 
I manufactured boards back in the early 1970's and we made all our own
manufacturing equipment. Things are of course different now, EPA guidelines
on handling chemicals etc... can be a hurdle. I like the machines they have
out now that actually mill the copper off the surface. No chemicals needed.
But you have to be able to afford the machine.
If you could afford a system like that you could produce small quantities
Here's some links...enjoy.

some fun reading there... good luck!

Bill Brooks, CID

-----Original Message-----
From: Nagaraj [mailto:[EMAIL PROTECTED] 
Sent: Monday, June 16, 2003 3:09 AM
To: Protel EDA Forum
Subject: Re: [PEDA] Direct printing of artwork

Hi Leo,

To Avoid Drill bit Problem, Enable Show Holes Before taking Print, hope it
will help you

For me it works fine.


-----Original Message-----
From: Leo Potjewijd [mailto:[EMAIL PROTECTED]
Sent: Monday, June 16, 2003 4:56 PM
To: Protel EDA Forum
Subject: Re: [PEDA] Direct printing of artwork

At 16/06/2003 10:15, Robert Gillat wrote:

>A colleague of mine used to produce artwork on film using a laser printer.
>The right sort of film was essential to ensure dimensional stability with
>the heat of the laser printer. This yielded black tracks on a transparent
>film. He then used a positive etch process to remove the photoresist which
>had been exposed to light. It was a very simple procedure. I always
>understood that this was the standard method, no need for negatives etc. I
>notice that products are available that improve the density and definition
>of a standard paper or film print using a contact method (Reprophane film).

That is EXACTLY the process I have been using for the past eight years for
all (100+ boards) my hobby projects.... Works like a charm!
Positive sensitive PCBs are readily available and inexpensive (at least in
the Netherlands :-).
Exposure is possible with a large number of UV sources (skin tanning
devices, mercury vapour lamps or even direct sunlight); for small boards it
is even possible to use a strong (at least 350 Watts) incandescent lamp at
short range. Be sure to test the optimum exposure time for your setup
(light source, film type and contrast, distance, photo resist type and
Good contact between the film and board is essential, especially with long
exposure times.
After exposure I develop in a solution of caustic soda (2 teaspoons in 1
liter water) at room temperature, rinse thoroughly and test with a drop of
diluted etchant (FeCl3) to see if all unwanted photoresist is gone. That
way you can always develop some more after rinsing. Hell, I even re-exposed
and then re-developed some boards that came out under developed....
Etching can be done with what you have available: Ammoniumpersulphate,
FeCl3, even nitric acid (20% or so). Be careful and wear appropriate
protection, these are ALL really MEAN chemicals.....
For the hasty people: things go better when heated above room temperature.
Etching a 10 by 16 cm eurocard in FeCl3 at 60 C takes less than three
minutes in a fresh, strong solution (I lost two boards this way because of
a telephone call: the stayed in too long and had no copper left at all).
DO NOT heat FeCl3 above 80 Celsius for it will produce a non-soluble
deposit that interferes with the etching process.
DO NOT heat Ammoniumpersulphate above 60 Celsius for it will decompose.
DO NOT heat nitric acid at all, it is plenty reactive at roomtemperature....

The biggest problem I always have is the drilling: few drill stands are
stable enough to use 18 mil  tungsten drillbits without breaking them.

Good luck!


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