I am beginning to understand that the Papp engine was a cavitation based

In the 1960's Papp used water for his fuel. Papp must have produced water
crystals in the compression part of the cylinder cycle where the volume of
the cylinder was decreasing. During this increasing pressure environment
inside the cylinder, cavitation bubbles must have formed thereby producing
ultra dense water crystals.

For example, some larger diesel engines suffer from cavitation due to high
compression and undersized cylinder walls. Vibrations of the cylinder wall
induce alternating low and high pressure in the coolant against the
cylinder wall. The result is pitting of the cylinder wall, which will
eventually let cooling fluid leak into the cylinder and combustion gases to
leak into the coolant.

To stop the cavitation based erosion of the cylinder walls and the
subsequent loss of compression over time, Papp went to noble gases which
produce ultra dense noble gas crystals during the compression stage of the
cylinder cycle but the formation of ultra dense noble gas crystals did not
damage the cylinder walls.

When Papp fired a spark, the ultra dense noble gas crystals exploded as
happens in the Holmlid experiment when the ultra dense hydrogen cycltals
produce atomic particle fragments that move outward at 3/4 the speed of
light. Currently, Holmlid does not capture that huge amount of energy
inherent to his expanding plasma.

To utilize the energy in the expanding plasma, Holmlid might capture that
nuclear powered expanding plasma as Papp once did in an engine design using
ultra dense hydrogen as fuel.

Reply via email to