The hellish conditions found in the Earth’s lower mantle: more than 1,800
miles below the surface, the lower mantle experiences temperatures nearing
4,000 degrees Fahrenheit and pressures that are 1.3 million times higher
than the air at earth's surface is where diamonds are created after a
milion years of enduring these intense physical conditions.
Graphite-to-diamond transformation induced by ultrasound cavitation
Diamond microcrystals have been synthesized using ultrasonic cavitation of
a suspension of hexagonal graphite in various organic liquid
media, at an average bulk temperature of the liquid up to 120°C and at
atmospheric pressure. The yield of diamond is up to 10% by mass. The
diamonds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray
diffraction and laser Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of the crystallite size
distribution showed that the diamonds were nearly mono-dispersed, having a
size 6 or 9μm ± 0.5μm, with cubic, crystalline morphology.
one “successful” cavitation bubble collapse = one diamond crystal)
If cavitation can produce diamonds from graphite in a microsecond,
cavitation can also produce the same intense conditions that can produce
metallic hydride components such as metallic water and hydrogen deep inside
the earth and other planets.
On Fri, Sep 22, 2017 at 2:07 PM, Nigel Dyer <l...@thedyers.org.uk> wrote:
> For some months I have been working with Cavitation Energy Systems (
> http://cavitationenergysystems.com/) who have been developing an
> efficient steam generator based on cavitation. What is not obvious until
> you start going through the details of what they say on the website is that
> there appears to be five times more energy in the steam they produce than
> the electrical energy they use to produce it.
> I have met up with them in Florida and gone through the details of the
> system and it does appear to be as they claim. The question is how does
> it manage to do this? By combining knowledge of their system with other
> 'excess energy' systems that I am aware of and had dealings with I think
> the mechanism is as follows:
> - As they intended, they use a diesel injector to create a pulse of
> water that is full of cavitation bubbles.
> - When the pulse hits a nearby surface a shock wave travels back
> through the water initiating an almost synchronous collapse of all the
> - The potential differences within the collapsing bubbles accelerate
> some free protons such that they have an energy of the order of 10kV,
> enough to overcome the coulomb barrier and initiate fusion.
> - The fusion energy is carried away by a virtual neutrino, and there
> is a cascade of virtual neutrinos which distribute the energy as kinetic
> energy among nearby protons and electrons. Some of the protons have
> sufficient energy to initiate a secondary fusion event starting a short
> duration chain reaction. With others the kinetic energy they gain is
> transferred to the water molecule and consequently the water is heated up
> until it boils.
> The way that the bubbles collapse directs the energy away from the
> surface, avoiding the normal problems of cavitation systems where the
> cavitation causes damage to surfaces. The way that the shock wave causes
> all the bubbles to collapse and initiate fusion at close to the same time
> means that the energy from the proton-proton fusion is able to heat all of
> the water, converting it to steam, at which point the chain reaction stops.
> Not only do they appear to have significant energy gain but it is
> available in a highly usable form, as high temperature steam. I have put
> together some more detailed notes.