Actually I was thinking of Norway. Poland was considered (wrongly, of course) a
combatant and was, of course, invaded by Germany which started the war. Britain
had not guaranteed their neutrality, but had said it would declare war if Germany
invaded, which is what happened. Britain occupied Norway to forestall the Nazis
invading it. All to no avail as we now know. Again, this is all just from memory
and for fun, so I stand to be corrected.

Steven Montgomery wrote:

> At 03:46 PM 11/9/2002, Marc wrote:
> >Trivia question: who first broke neutrality in WWII?
> Great Britain, September 3, 1940, ostensibly to guarantee the territorial
> integrity of Poland. However after the war Poland was divvied up to the
> Soviets--so what the heck was WWII fought for?
> Interestingly enough, President Roosevelt urged the military combatants on
> both sides to refrain from bombing cities or civilian populations.
> Churchill and the French promised that only strictly military targets would
> be bombed by their air forces.

Hmm, which reminds me of my other trivia question that I'm not sure I phrased
properly. I was trying to bring out that the French fleet had been taken to
French West Africa (Algiers?) for protection when France was invaded. The British
scuttled the entire French fleet at one fell swoop, to prevent them from falling
into German hands and/or for fear that the Vichy French would use them in
cooperation with the Germans, much to DeGaulle's consternation.

All of this isn't for the purpose of defaming Churchill, incidentally. But it
does show why secular history can be so confusing, and why "true" history
sometimes has to be written differently. As Churchill himself put it, sometimes a
truth is so vital that it has to be shored about with lies to protect it. In the
end we rightly remember Churchill as a truly valiant figure, and choose to forget
his foibles and his miserable disasters as a peacetime PM, and his crossing of
party lines, the fact that the reason his famous speeches were given by an actor
was probably because Churchill was too drunk, etc., etc.

(The actor, incidentally, whose name escapes me, was best known at the time for a
kind of Canadian connection, too, in a back-handed way -- he played the voice of
Winnie the Pooh in a children's program on the BBC).

My favourite portrait of him is by Karsh, who died this last year, incidentally.
At the time he wasn't too well known -- just an Armenian immigrant living in
Ottawa trying to make a go as a photographer. Churchill was running on a tight
schedule and didn't like posing for portraits as it was. Karsh was nervous, he
related in his memoirs, and was fussing with the camera, when Churchill started
to growl a bit, in impatience. On impulse, Karsh snatched the omnipresent cigar
out of Churchill's mouth and immediately opened the shutter -- and that's how he
captured that famous scowl.

Marc A. Schindler
Spruce Grove, Alberta, Canada -- Gateway to the Boreal Parkland

“Man will occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of the time he will pick
himself up and continue on” – Winston Churchill

Note: This communication represents the informal personal views of the author
solely; its contents do not necessarily reflect those of the author’s employer,
nor those of any organization with which the author may be associated.

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