# Re: [Fis] It-from-Bit and information interpretation of QM

```Koichiro: “In order to make them decidable or meaningful, some qualifier must
definitely be needed. A popular example of such a qualifier is a subjective
observer.”```
```

“A difference that makes a difference” for a qualifier, thus requires
specification of:

1.      The first difference;

2.      The second difference;

3.      The qualifier (e.g., the observer).

The first difference can be measured using Shannon-type information, since a
probability distribution can be considered as a set of (first-order)
differences. Brillouin tried to specify the second difference as a ΔH. ΔH can
also be negative (“negentropy”). But how does one proceed to the measurement?

Best,

Loet

_____

Loet Leydesdorff

Emeritus University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR)

<mailto:l...@leydesdorff.net> l...@leydesdorff.net ;
<http://www.leydesdorff.net/> http://www.leydesdorff.net/
Honorary Professor,  <http://www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/> SPRU, University of
Sussex;

Guest Professor  <http://www.zju.edu.cn/english/> Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou;
Visiting Professor,  <http://www.istic.ac.cn/Eng/brief_en.html> ISTIC, Beijing;

Visiting Professor,  <http://www.bbk.ac.uk/> Birkbeck, University of London;

From: Fis [mailto:fis-boun...@listas.unizar.es] On Behalf Of Koichiro Matsuno
Sent: Saturday, June 27, 2015 9:04 AM
To: 'John Collier'; 'fis'
Subject: Re: [Fis] It-from-Bit and information interpretation of QM

At 4:00 AM 06/27/2015, John Collier wrote:

I also see no reason that Bateson’s difference that makes a difference needs to
involve meaning at either end.

[KM] Right.  The phrase saying “a difference that makes a difference” must be a
prototypical example of second-order logic in that the difference appearing
both in the subject and predicate can accept quantification. Most statements
framed in second-order logic  are not decidable. In order to make them
decidable or meaningful, some qualifier must definitely be needed. A popular
example of such a qualifier is a subjective observer. However, the point is
that the subjective observer is not limited to Alice or Bob in the QBist
parlance.

Koichiro

```
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