At 6:19 PM 06/27/2015, Loet Leydersdorff wrote:


Remains the need to specify: 

1.      The first difference [cf. Shannon's information bits]; 

2.      The second difference [cf. Brillouin's negentropy]; 


[KM] Loet, if you stick to first-order logic, there would be no need for
recruiting an observer for the decidable theoretical edifice. Both Shannon's
information and Brillouin's information-cum-thermodynamics belong to
first-order logic as implying that the distinction between the existential
quantifier and the universal one applies only to the subject. The role of
measurement in first-order logic is at most secondary and no more than
confirming the theoretical predictions.  However, if you consider the
difference making a difference making a further difference ad infinitum, the
resulting proposition would be of the type following at the least
second-order logic in the sense that quantification would also apply to the
predicate. If one further wants to see a proposition of second-order logic
decidable, some qualifier would have to be implemented of course naturally.
That natural aspect would make biology quite unique in the material world.
This has been my second for this week. 






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