Protel's  stackup manager in conjunction with the signal integrity tools
work as well as any tools I have seen on the market including Hyperlink.
If you are not familiar with all of the issues regarding controlled
impedance, I recommend using a high end shop as several other users have
suggested. so that they  follow your stackup.   Talk with them first and get
a recommended stackup if necessary.
By definition  controlled impedance means that the path must follow a
"constant media".   Lee Richie and several others have written many good
articles regarding do and donts.  Here are some common sense things I have
picked up from reading their articles

Do reference all controlled impedance lines  to a plane.
Do not reference controlled impedance lines to other signals
Do not attempt to use broadside coupled traces for controlled impedance
because of misregistration between layers.
Route diff traces next to each other but you do not have to route for diff
impedance.   I could spend the rest of the afternoon on this subject but I
wont.  Lee Richie wrote an article on this on I concur with his article why
diff routing  is required   but diff impedance in not  required.
Do not run split planes under controlled impedance traces,   remember it has
to be a constant media.
For Gigi bit speeds you might consider using a substrate with a lower DK.
We have used both poylimide and Nelco 7000-13 for gigabit rates.   Talk to
your board house
Ideally no vias, but in an imperfect world, use the min of vias, better yet
you might consider blind and buried vias because of they inherently have
less capacitance.
You can travel layer to layer with  the same impedance but the reference
must remain the same   i.e. if you  ref gnd for layer 1 then drop to layer 3
gnd must follow as the reference plane.
Controlled impedance boards may require many layers for gigabit systems,
we often design 18 -24 layers,  half  of them are planes.
Internal signal layers must be 1/2 oz copper for controlled impedance,  (
this is because the fabrication difficulty  etching  a straight edge on 1 oz
copper)   Again I will skip all of the details
Most likely you will not be able to achieve anything greater than 60 ohms on
internal traces on a multilayer board.  It can be done but with very awkward
and unbalanced stackups.

Go to pcdmag.com online and search their archives for articles, they have
addressed many of these issues from time to time with some good and some not
so good writers.

Hope this helps

Mike Reagan
Frederick  MD

> i suppose this question doesn't have to do with protel specifically, but i
> was hoping someone could answer it for me or at least point me in the
> direction.  (i'm not a full time PCB layout person by the way)  i'm
> presently laying out a board with a big xilinx fpga and a gigabit ethernet
> phy chip on it.  the datasheet for the gigabit chip says that the
> connections between chips need to be done with 50 ohm impedance
> traces.  how do i calculate the impedance of a trace ?  it seems like
> width and stackup order are the only two variables i have to play with.  i
> am planning to have protos of this board made by advanced circuits, in
> that makes any difference.
> thanks for any help,
> -rimas

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