On Tue, Oct 23, 2012 at 11:04 PM, Roger Clough <rclo...@verizon.net> wrote:
> Kant's Refutation of (Problematic) Idealism
> Problematic Idealism (Berkeley's idealism, not that of Leibniz) is the
> thesis that we cannot
> prove that objects outside us exist. This results directly from Descartes'
> proposition
> that the only thing I cannot doubt is that I exist (solipsism).
> If solipsism is true, it seems to raise the problem that we cannot prove
> that objects outside
> us exist . But Kant refutes this thesis by his observation that we cannot
> observe the
> passing of time (in itself inextended or nonphysical) unless there is some
> fixed inextended substrate
> on which to observe the change in time.  Thus there must exist a fixed (only
> necessarily over a small
> duration of time) nonphysical substrate to reality.  A similar conclusion
> can be made regarding
> space.

I cannot doubt that I exist *at this moment*, but I can doubt that I
existed before, or that any other moments have or will exist.

Stathis Papaioannou

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